More AM retuning work

Working on another old AM station, this one is a simple Class C one tower on 1230 KHz.

Broadcast Electronics AM Output Tuning Network
Broadcast Electronics AM Output Tuning Network

The main problem today was this BE AM output network unit between the BE AM1A and the ATU.  This site has had some dirt difficulties over the years and the internal parts of this tuning unit arc at full power.  I attempted to drive the ATU directly with the transmitter, which was a no-go.

Gates Radio 1 KW AM ATU, circa 1947
Gates Radio 1 KW AM ATU, circa 1947

I took a look at the ATU, which is a pretty standard Gates 1 KW ATU from the late forties or early fifties.  I have seen perhaps dozens of these things.

My first thought was that over the years, likely due to changes in the ground system, the base impedance has shifted away from its licensed values.  However, a quick measurement of the base impedance shows it to be exactly at the licensed value, 17.3 ohms.  The tower is 67 degrees tall, so that impedance value is right in the theoretical norm.

I  measured the input to the ATU, which showed 38 ohms with about 7 ohms capacitive reactance.  I can only surmise that it has always been this way.  The transmitter in use before the BE AM1A was a Harris/Gates Radio BC-1G.  That model transmitter will drive anything including an open transmission line.

Retuned ATU input; 49 ohms resistive, 0 ohms reactance
Retuned ATU input; 49 ohms resistive, 0 ohms reactance

Having the bridge on hand, I decided to retune the ATU for a better match. I put the bridge on the input terminals of the ATU and set it to 50 j0.  Using the remote control, I turned the transmitter off and on while making small adjustments to the output strap on the coil until the resistance was 49 ohms with zero reactance.  I would have gotten it to 50 ohms, but the strap on the output side of the coil would not stretch far enough to reach the proper spot on the coil.

Now the transmitter will run into the ATU directly at full power with about three watts reflected.   The BE AM output matching network unit has been removed for cleaning and repairs.  I will reinstall it once those repairs are completed.

Ten years on

It was ten years ago that I registered the domain name for Engineering Radio. A few days latter, I put the first post up. It is still there.  Those were different times for me personally and the business in general.  There certainly have been trials, but it has never been dull.

Periodically, I go back through the posts and delete anything that is no longer relevant.  I would estimate about 1/4 to 1/3 of the content has been deleted over the years.  It is a good exercise to go back through and read what I wrote previously.

Currently, the stats are:

  • 787 published posts, there are a few in the wings waiting to be finished
  • Approximately 200 page views per day
  • 170 RSS feed subscriptions

I lost the country counter, but I believe the split is still about 60/40 US readers vs other countries.

I will continue on with this thing for as long as I feel it is worth while.

Last Walk across The Island

Yesterday I took, what I hope to be, my last walk across Pleasure Beach Island in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The task at hand was repairing the antenna array for WICC. There turned out to be several issues which were addressed in turn.

WICC tower feed point, courtesy of NECRAT

The trouble started when the feed line between the ATU and the tower became disconnected during a storm. That consists of a 1 inch copper pipe extending from the ATU feed through insulator up to a brass plate suspended between the four tower legs by hard drawn single 0 copper wire. The feed line separated at the brass plate which, unfortunately, is approximately eighteen feet in the air.

North Tower feed point connection, cold soldered

The feed line was repaired, but not effectively. By the looks of the picture, the brass plate never got hot enough to accept the solder.

After the feed line was re-repaired, other issues became apparent. The base impedance of the tower was still off and the array was still way out of tolerance.

It was noticed that several bypass capacitors on both of the tower lighting chokes where blown open. Those where replaced and the tower lighting chokes where checked for shorted turns. While it is always nice to replace burned out parts, this did not correct the problem.

Finally, we were back at the base of the tower with the defective feed point and a decided to grab the pipe and give it a good shake to see if it came apart again. It did not, but then I realized that that tower was supposed to be back in the circuit and I did not receive any RF burns for my carelessness.

We dug into the ATU and discovered that the input capacitor was marginal and there was a large crack in it. The output capacitor seemed to be completely open. The base current that we were seeing on the base current meter was being induced by the other tower. It all began to make sense.

Bad Capacitor

The parts were ordered and shipped and I made another trip out to install them myself.

Thus, on this particular day, I had my tool bag, an OIB-3 with fresh batteries, my cordless drill, drill bits, and three type 294 mica capacitors. I took the drill because the new capacitors were quite a bit larger than the old ones, so I needed to move the stand off insulators to remount them.

Pleasure Beach pier, foggy day

The walk from the end of the dock to the transmitter site is approximately 900 meters or 0.55 miles, according to google maps. On a nice day, it is a pleasant walk. On not so nice days, it can be less so. It was foggy with light drizzle. Not enough to get wet right away, but enough to get slowly soaked while working on the ATU repairs.

WICC square base self supporting towers, manufactured by Milliken Tower, circa 1924

With the new capacitors installed, I needed to adjust the array back into tolerance, which didn’t take too long. I made a short video of the station running at full power showing the antenna monitor readings for both the day and night patterns. Then packed up and headed back to the dock.

My ride is here

I wanted to take a set of monitor points, but the FIM-41 had been moved to another location. That was fine, I was getting pretty uncomfortable in my wet clothes, so I headed home.

Goodbye, WICC.

Almost Eighteen Years

I do not know what the record is for the longest tube life, however, this particular tube lasted 17 years, 11 months and 23 days.  That’s 157,596 hours.

I had written about this almost five years ago:

The last one was last fall:

Eimac 4CX12000A power tube, serial number RHH108

This was installed new in a Broadcast Electronics FM20T transmitter which was placed on line on June 6, 2001.  It lasted until May 28th, 2019 with almost no down time.  Towards the end, the emissions started dropping off and we increased the filament voltage up to 10 volts.  When you have to increase the filament voltage, that really is the end for a tube.

The new tube was put in and I carefully marked out the date in the maintenance log.  The hour meter on the transmitter stopped working several years ago.

Prior to this, the longest tube life I’d experienced was an EEV 4CX35000C from an MW-50B transmitter RF section.  When that tube came out, it looked like it have been on fire.