March 2019
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The curious case of the WKZE Notice Of Violation

On June 19th, WKZE received a notice of violation from the FCC’s New York Field office.  The crux of the issue seems to be interference being generated on 784.8 MHz (WKZE 8th harmonic) to a new Verizon Wireless installation located nearby:

47 C.F.R. §73.317(a): “FM broadcast stations employing transmitters authorized after January 1, 1960, must maintain the bandwidth occupied by their emissions in accordance with the specification detailed below. FM broadcast stations employing transmitters installed or type accepted before January 1, 1960, must achieve the highest degree of compliance with these specifications practicable with their existing equipment. In either case, should harmful interference to other authorized stations occur, the licensee shall correct the problem promptly or cease operation.” The eighth harmonic of Station WKZE-FM (784.8 MHz) was causing interference to the Verizon Wireless transmitter located approximately 500 feet away.

First off, we note that the WKZE transmitter is not allegedly causing interference to a Verizon Wireless transmitter, but rather to a Verizon Wireless receiver.  That may be splitting hairs, however, since the FCC is quoting a technical rules violation, they can at least get the technical language right.

A brief examination of rest of FCC part 73.317 is in order to find the specification cited in section (a).  Section (d) states:

 (d) Any emission appearing on a frequency removed from the carrier by more than 600 kHz must be attenuated at least 43 + 10 Log10 (Power, in watts) dB below the level of the unmodulated carrier, or 80 dB, whichever is the lesser attenuation.

Since 784.8 MHz – 98.1 MHz is greater than 600 KHz, this is the section that applies to the WKZE situation.  Thus, the interfering signal must be greater than -80 dBc to trigger the Notice Of Violation (NOV) from the FCC.  The station ERP is 1,800 watts or +62 dBm.  Measurements were made with a an Agilent N992A spectrum analyzer using an LPA-1000 log periodic antenna.  At a 12 foot distance away from the WKZE transmitter cabinet, the signal on 784.8 MHz was found to be -94 dBc or 0.000063 watt.  At the base of the Verizon Wireless tower, the measurement was -124 dBc, or 0.000000025 watt, which is barely perceptible above the -130 dBm noise floor.  There does not appear to be any violation of 47 CFR 73.317.  Rather, the issue seems to be Verizon Wireless’s deployment of 700 MHz LTE band and the use of high gain antennas coupled with high gain preamplifiers on frequencies that are harmonically related to broadcast stations nearby.  In this particular installation, the antenna has 16 dB of gain, minus a 4.5 dB of transmission line loss into a 21 dB preamplifier before the receiver.  At the output of the Verizon preamplifier, the signal on 784.8 MHz was measured at -89 dBc, which is still in compliance.

By these measurements, clearly WKZE is not in violation of any FCC regulation.  It makes one wonder, does the FCC understand it’s own rules?  Or, is this a matter of favoritism towards a huge corporation over a small independent radio broadcaster.  Is it a matter of “broadband at the expense of all others?”  There are several of these broadcast to 700 MHZ LTE interference cases pending throughout the country.  This could set a dangerous precedent for broadcasters and other RF spectrum users as wireless giants like Verizon throw their weight around and eye even more spectrum to press into broadband service.

Commlaw blog has a good post this subject: Harmonic Convergence?

Update: Response from WKZE attorney can be found here, includes the above mentioned actual measurements.

The FCC: Spectrum management in the public interest

Alternative title: Who will really benefit from all digital AM HD Radio™?

Remember when, at license renewal time, radio and TV stations played this announcement:

On (date of the last renewal grant), (station’s call letters) was granted a license by the Federal Communications Commission to serve the public interest as a public trustee until (license expiration date)…

Emphasis mine.

There seems to be a disassociation between those words and the actions of certain broadcasters who view their licenses as a matter of fact and have little regard for the public interest.  The FCC exacerbates the situation with the attitude that everything, including the entire radio frequency spectrum, is for sale to the highest bidder.  John Anderson (DIY Media) has a great article on how big business interests game federal regulators into doing what they want.  This happens in all sectors; banking, agriculture, energy, health care, media, military and so on.   There are many examples of shoddy regulators and big business gone wild over the last ten years to fully prove this theory.  If you don’t believe me, do a little research.  There is no reason to think that the FCC is different from any other federal regulatory agency.

The vast majority of mass media outlets in the US are owned by just six major corporations (see below).  Radio remains the only piece of the mass media system that has not been completely rolled up in consolidation.  Currently, there is a small number corporate radio owners who own a combined ~2,300 stations and one public broadcasting network that accounts for another ~900 stations. I include public radio here because the majority of those station’s upgrades were footed by the taxpayer though grants from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. That leaves a majority of the approximately 8,500 radio stations that are still owned by a diversified collection of medium and small groups and individuals.

Forcing radio stations to adopt the proprietary, all digital HD Radio™ as the broadcasting standard would, in effect, drive many of those small owners and individuals out of business because of the exorbitant costs for equipment upgrades, antenna modifications, and licensing fees.  This would create a new wave of consolidation as smaller groups and single station owners sold out.  Any remaining small station owners will not have the legal wherewithal to fight against the coming waves of digital interference on both the AM (medium frequency) and FM (VHF) bands.

Therefore, the short answer to the question; who benefits from an all conversion to all digital HD Radio™ is iBquity and its investors, many of whom are found in the list of consolidated media corporations below.  Who looses? Just about everyone else; small and medium group owners, independent radio owners, listeners, communities of license, radio employees, advertisers etc. For those sitting on the fence, thinking “I’ll just do my job any everything will be just fine.”  Full implementation of HD Radio™ will destroy what is left of broadcasting in this country.  Radio is already on shaky ground as a result of product dilution, staff cuts, mediocre programing and competing media systems.  One more step backward, such as adopting a technically flawed digital system that works worse than its analog counterpart, and the remaining listeners may just say “screw this,” and abandon radio altogether.  When the last radio station is turned off, what do you think will happen to your job then?

At the big NAB Las Vegas confab, FCC commissioner Ajit Pai and to a lesser extent, Commissioner Rosenworcel, encouraged people to write or email them with their ideas on how to revitalize AM radio.  I suggest we take advantage of that invitation and tell them what HD Radio™ really is.  There is a shrinking window of opportunity to join the discourse and be heard, now is the time.

Let not any one pacify his conscience by the delusion that he can do no harm if he takes no part, and forms no opinion. Bad men need nothing more to compass their ends, than that good men should look on and do nothing. ~John Stuart Mill

What is at stake?  The future of diversified media and radio broadcasting in the US.

Sidebar: Mass Media Consolidation

Can the public trust a mass media that is owned mostly by six mega corporations to honestly and without bias report news, current events, investigate corruption, and be a government watch dog?  History says no.

Who owns the media?

Time Warner

  • Home Box Office (HBO)
  • Time Inc.
  • Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
  • Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc.
  • CW Network (partial ownership)
  • TMZ
  • New Line Cinema
  • Time Warner Cable (spun off in 2009)
  • Cinemax
  • Cartoon Network
  • TBS
  • TNT
  • CNN
  • HLN
  • MapQuest
  • Moviefone
  • Castle Rock
  • Sports Illustrated
  • Fortune
  • Marie Claire
  • People Magazine

Walt Disney

  • ABC Television Network (8 stations owned, 200 affiliates)
  • Disney Publishing
  • ESPN Inc.
  • Disney Channel
  • Radio Disney (31 stations, 2 affiliates)
  • SOAPnet
  • A&E
  • Lifetime
  • Buena Vista Home Entertainment
  • Buena Vista Theatrical Productions
  • Buena Vista Records
  • Disney Records
  • Hollywood Records
  • Miramax Films
  • Touchstone Pictures
  • Walt Disney Pictures
  • Pixar Animation Studios
  • Buena Vista Games
  • Hyperion Books


  • Paramount Pictures
  • Paramount Home Entertainment
  • Black Entertainment Television (BET)
  • Comedy Central
  • Country Music Television (CMT)
  • Logo
  • MTV
  • MTV Canada
  • MTV2
  • Nick Magazine
  • Nick at Nite
  • Nick Jr.
  • Nickelodeon
  • Noggin
  • Spike TV
  • The Movie Channel
  • TV Land
  • VH1

News Corporation

  • Dow Jones & Company, Inc.
  • Fox Television Stations (25 stations)
  • The New York Post
  • Fox Searchlight Pictures
  • Beliefnet
  • Fox Business Network
  • Fox Kids Europe
  • Fox News Channel
  • Fox News Radio
  • Fox Sports Net
  • Fox Television Network (175 affiliates)
  • FX
  • My Network TV
  • MySpace
  • News Limited News
  • Phoenix InfoNews Channel
  • Phoenix Movies Channel
  • Sky PerfecTV
  • Speed Channel
  • STAR TV India
  • STAR TV Taiwan
  • STAR World
  • Times Higher Education Supplement Magazine
  • Times Literary Supplement Magazine
  • Times of London
  • 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment
  • 20th Century Fox International
  • 20th Century Fox Studios
  • 20th Century Fox Television
  • BSkyB
  • The Wall Street Journal
  • Fox Broadcasting Company
  • Fox Interactive Media
  • HarperCollins Publishers
  • The National Geographic Channel
  • National Rugby League
  • News Interactive
  • News Outdoor
  • Radio Veronica
  • ReganBooks
  • Sky Italia
  • Sky Radio Denmark
  • Sky Radio Germany
  • Sky Radio Netherlands
  • STAR
  • Zondervan

CBS Corporation

  • CBS News
  • CBS Sports
  • CBS Television Network (16 stations owned, 200 affiliates)
  • CNET
  • Showtime
  • CBS Radio Inc. (130 stations)
  • CBS Consumer Products
  • CBS Outdoor
  • CW Network (50% ownership)
  • Simon & Schuster (Pocket Books, Scribner)

NBC Universal

  • Bravo
  • CNBC
  • NBC News
  • NBC Sports
  • NBC Television Network (10 stations owned, 200 affiliates)
  • Oxygen
  • SciFi Magazine
  • Syfy (Sci Fi Channel)
  • Telemundo
  • USA Network
  • Weather Channel
  • Focus Features
  • NBC Universal Television Distribution
  • NBC Universal Television Studio
  • Paxson Communications (partial ownership)
  • Trio
  • Universal Parks & Resorts
  • Universal Pictures
  • Universal Studio Home Video

Large and medium group radio owners:

Bain Capital Partners, LLC Thomas H Lee Partners, LLC

  • Clear Channel Outdoor
  • Clear Channel Broadcasting (800 stations)
  • Premier Radio Networks
  • Radio Computer Services (RCS)

Cumulus Media (public)

  • Cumulus Broadcasting (550 stations)
  • Cumulus networks (formerly ABC Radio networks)
  • Broadcast Software International

Townsquare Media (220 stations)

Entercom (109 stations)

Salem Communications (97 stations)

Saga Communications (88 stations)

Univision (69 radio, 42 television stations)

Radio one (69 stations)

Family Broadcasting (63 stations)

Beasley Broadcast Group (47 stations)

Moody Radio (36 stations)


The Shively Branched combiner

Did some work a while ago at a transmitter site that had three transmitter combined into one antenna.  The site uses a Shively branched combiner:

Shively Branched combiner

Shively Branched combiner

Each transmitter can be tested into a separate 20 KW dummy load:

Three inch coax switches

Three inch coax switches

Transmitter themselves are Nautel NV15s:

Nautel NV20 transmiters

Nautel NV15 transmiters

Except the one on the end, which is an older BE FM20A.

Message from the General Manager

Or whatever those guys are called these days:


Especially when that sink is located on the second floor, above the studio on the first floor.  ‘Tis but a small thing really, one of those little details, but in light of the sink also being clogged, it becomes very significant.  That, coupled with the fact that the building is uninhabited at night and disaster is afoot.

Clogged sink

Clogged sink

The water was running slowly all night…

Wet ceiling tiles

Wet ceiling tiles

It filled up the sink.  It ran across the floor.  It soaked the carpet. It seeped into the sub floor and out of the ceiling on the first floor and then into this nice Pacific Recorders BMX III console.

Pacific Recorders BMX III console, draining

Pacific Recorders BMX III console, draining

Pacific Recorders BMX III console, draining/drying

Pacific Recorders BMX III console, draining/drying

You know that burning electronic/plastic smell?  Yeah, that’s it, mixed with stale funky water, wet wood and a nondescript mildewy odor; that is what the room smells like.  Very pleasing.  The furniture below the console was soaked too:

Studio furniture after water damage

Studio furniture after water damage

Some of the input module edge connectors; they didn’t fair so well:

PRE BMXIII burned edge connectors

PRE BMXIII burned edge connectors

The backplane for the power supply buss has to be replaced and these switches with the water bubbles in them, they have to go too:

Pacific Recorders BMXIII buss select switch full of water

Pacific Recorders BMXIII buss select switch full of water

We dried out the furniture with an industrial strength hair dryer.  By three PM we had unsoldered all of the bad parts and cleaned off the modules and the console back plane.

Parts for repairs are on order from Mooretronix.  I doubt this will be repaired before next Tuesday.

Somebody came in and was all “awww, this sucks bla bla bla.”  Well, maybe, but I get paid by the hour and frankly, there are much worse things that I could be doing…

Moving and upgrading a translator

Something that I eluded to in a previous post, we finalized the move of the WSBS translator, W231AK, from the Fairview Hospital in Great Barrington to the side of the AM tower.

Tower crew hanging translator antenna on AM tower

Tower crew hanging translator antenna on AM tower

The move was started by hanging a new Shively 6812B antenna from the side of the AM tower, located off of US 7, north of Great Barrington. This is a half-wave spaced circularly polarized antenna.

While this work was going on, some guy from OSHA showed up and started taking pictures without asking permission or telling anyone who he was.  We informed him that he was on private property and asked him his reasons for being there.  He got in his car and left, no doubt to a parking lot down the road so he could keep the tower climbers safe… mostly from themselves… by levying huge fines for free climbing…  Wasn’t there something in the news about the government running out of money?  Anyway…

W231AK antenna, Great Barrington, MA

W231AK antenna, Great Barrington, MA

WSBS had been using this translator for a few years. The advantages for the station from the translator move are greater power output (from 35 watts to 250 watts ERP) and less operating expenses in the form of TELCO line charges and roof top rental at the Hospital.

WSBS tower with W231AK antenna mounted

WSBS tower with W231AK antenna mounted

In addition to that, the reliability of the translator should increase, as there have been several instances in the past when TELCO line problems have taken the translator off the air for days at a time.

W231AK new transmitter

W231AK new transmitter, WSBS base current meter below

The transmitter for W231AK was changed from a Crown 35 watt unit to a BW Broadcast T600.  These units are made in the UK and it is an all in one processor/exciter/transmitter. We took the cover off to make a few configuration changes and the entire unit is very well made.

BW Broadcast T600 insides

BW Broadcast T600 insides

One of the nice features of this particular transmitter is the screw down clamping method of connecting the RF devices. Lets face it, unsoldering MOSFETS is a PITA. This screw down clamp eliminates all that.

BW Broadcast T600 power amp

BW Broadcast T600 power amp

The audio input and processing board is pretty neat too.

BW Broadcast T600 audio input board

BW Broadcast T600 audio input board

There are several different processing settings which we played around with.  All in all, it seems like a pretty solid unit and I would recommend it to anyone looking for a low to moderate power transmitter.

The NASH: WNSH, Newark, NJ

Lately, I have been working at a site in West Orange, NJ connecting various parts and pieces and thought that this was interesting:

WNSH 94.7 MHz, Newark, NJ main antenna (top)

WNSH 94.7 MHz, Newark, NJ main antenna (top)

That is the main antenna for WNSH, 94.7 MHz Newark, NJ, aka “Nash-FM.”  Below that is the backup antenna for WEPN-FM (98.7 MHz), WQHT (97.1 MHz) and WFAN-FM (101.9 MHz).  More on those stations later.

WFME studio building

WFME studio building

This is the WFME studios, located off of NJ Route 10.  It is kind of hard to see the call letters behind all those trees and whatnot.  There is an older picture from 1999 floating around, which shows the studio building in better condition.  This is a better angle:

WFME studio

WFME studio

I believe WFME is still originating its programming here, now being broadcast on WFME 106.3 MHz, Mount Kisco.  I had to use the facilities there, the interior is like a way back 80’s time machine, which is kind of cool.  If I owned a radio station, I would go for the 70’s office decor; dark wood paneling, shag carpets, bright blue bathroom tile and avocado green appliances, but hey, that’s just me.

WNSH backup antenna, WFME-TV antenna

WNSH backup antenna, WFME-TV antenna

This is the WNSH backup antenna, mounted on top of a UHF slot antenna for WFME-TV.  There is an LP TV antenna mounted there also, but I don’ t know who it belongs to.  Overall, it is an interesting transmitter site on “First Mountain” in West Orange, NJ.  Also located here, WFMU-FM, an old ATT microwave site, now owned by American Tower and several cell carriers.   In other words, it is just like most other mountain top transmitter sites, except there is a shopping plaza across the street.

I gave a listen to the NASH while driving there.  For where it is, it seems to have a pretty good coverage area.  As for the music, well, I am not sure how a Manhattenite will relate to Tracy Byrd’s “I’m from the Country” wherein:

Everybody knows everybody, everybody calls you friend
You don’t need an invitation, kick off your shoes come on in
Yeah, we know how to work and we know how to play
We’re from the country and we like it that way

Being from upstate NY, I get it.  Perhaps the Manhattan salary man will too.  There are no DJ’s on air quite yet, just music, some commercials and a few “Nash-FM” liners that sound slightly distorted.

Goodbye you piece of junk

We are scrapping several old transmitters these last few weeks as part of a site upgrade  A couple of Harris FM20 and 10H transmitters are out the door.

Harris FM20H transmitter, circa 1970

Harris FM20H transmitter, circa 1970

Some people like these transmitters. I am not one of those. I found that they were of dubious reliability, tended to drift out of tune and have AM noise problems, and had multiple catastrophic failure modes. If it was not tuned just right, it also had a tendency to have HF oscillations and internal arcing in the PA cabinet.

Harris FM20H3 PA cabinet modification

Harris FM20H3 PA cabinet modification

This transmitter had a non-factory authorized modification installed as a tuning aid.  Tune for best efficiency, minimum AM noise then check and see if it is arcing.  It is also advisable to wear hearing protection during the tuning process.

Harris FM20H3, circa 1972

Harris FM20H3, circa 1972

This particular transmitter was my nemesis for a couple of years. It is actually possible to hate an innanimate object, I can tell  you. Goodbye you piece of shit.

We tend to scrap these instead of dumpster them.  It saves the client a little bit of money on dumpster charges.  If all the metal is sorted out by category, e.g. all the copper windings are cut from the HV transformer and PS filter inductors, all the brass, aluminum, and wiring harness are separated, then it is almost worth the time and effort.  Personally, I’d rather see all that material reused than land filled.

Nautel Radio Coverage Tool

This is a Webinar video from Nautel about their Radio Coverage Tool:

Highlights of the Nautel RF tool kit:

  • Analyze proposed transmitter location’s coverage
  • Tower heights can be adjusted
  • Antenna gains can be changed
  • Transmitter power levels
  • Includes Terrain data
  • Includes population within coverage areas
  • Frequency Range 30 Mhz to 3GHz
  • Useful for general broadcast or point to point systems

This can be a useful tool for those looking to gauge realistic coverage of a station in terrain challenged areas.  It can also be useful for studying STL paths, RPU coverage, etc.

One problem is the power levels and antennas are preset, with the minimum setting 200 watts into a two bay antenna.  These settings are too high for use when investigating a potential LPFM.  For that, the Radio Mobile Online (which is the engine behind the Nautel RF tool kit) can be accessed directly via  Requires an account, which is very easy to set up.  For most users, FM broadcast band frequencies will not be available, however 2 meter amateur frequencies (146 MHz) are the default, and for all practical purposes, will model coverage in the FM band (88 to 108 MHz) just fine.

By creating a hypothetical LP100 transmitter site, the coverages between the FCC 60 dBu contour and the actual coverage based on terrain can be compared.  This is the FCC 60 dBu coverage contour:

Example contour, LP-100 station

Example 60 dBu contour, LP-100 station

According to the US Census data, this station has a population coverage of; 30,721 in the 70 dBu or 3.162 mV/m contour, 92,574  in the 60 dBu or 1 mV/m contour, and 165,183 in the 50 dBu or 0.316 mV/m contour. Courtesy of REC Network.  The 60 dBu contour is considered the protected area licensed for use by the FCC.

Looking at a coverage terrain map, the picture changes somewhat:

Example coverage map, LP-100 station

Example coverage map, LP-100 station

This is based on predicted receiver location using terrain data; receiver antenna height 1 meter, 90% reliability, minimum signal level 10 µV (20 dBu,  yellow, very good car radios) and 31.62 µV (30 dBu, green, good radios and indoor reception).  Areas to the south and east of the transmitter are shaded by a large hill, thus they show low or no signal on the terrain based coverage map.  UN Population data indicates the yellow has 178,573 and the green area has 72,014 persons.  This map does not take into account co-channel and adjacent channel interference, which there is sure to be.

When comparing the two maps, one can see the coverage holes in the terrain map that are within the 60 dBu contour.  There may also be a slight difference in populations covered because the FCC map uses 2010 US Census data and the Radio Mobile Map uses UN population data.  For general planning purposes, the area shaded in green would be a safe bet on good reception, all other things being equal.

Since the LPFM stations are very limited in their ERP, finding a good transmitter site which will cover the desired area will be key to a successful operation.

Zonecasting; the Technical Details

I saw this a item many weeks ago, however, had not had time to look at it until now.  Geo Broadcasting Solutions has filed Petition for Rule Making (RM-11659) based on a system divides the coverage area of major stations into smaller zones allowing for ad targeting of specific audiences.  They have coined the term “Zone Casting” to describe the scheme. It is covered by two US issued patents filed by Lazer Spots, LLC: 20120014370 and 20110065377.  After a look at these two patents, it seems there are three possible ways to accomplish this Zone Casting Scheme:

  1. In the first described method, the main transmitter is broadcasting area wide and all the zone transmitters are muted.  An inaudible signal is transmitted to all units, the main transmitter is then muted and the zone transmitters turn on and transmit localized content.  After the local information is transmitted, the zone transmitters mute and the main transmitter resumes broadcasting.
  2. In the second described method, the main transmitter and the zone transmitters are broadcasting area wide information.  The main transmitter ceases broadcasting area wide information and the zone transmitters begin broadcasting localized information.  At the end of the localized information the main transmitter and zone transmitters transmit area wide information.
  3. In the third describe method, the main transmitter and zone transmitters are broadcasting wide area information with “capture ratio pattern.”  The main transmitter initiates an alteration, temporarily becoming a zone transmitter.  The zone transmitters then transmit localized content.  After the localized content, the main transmitter becomes a main transmitter again.

All of the transmitters are linked to the studio via digital STL systems, content for the zone transmitters is distributed via IP network.  The transmitter frequencies are synced with GPS, similar to FM on channel booster stations.  Method number three includes possibly switching the transmitter output to a lower gain and or lower height antenna.

Zone Broadcasting Conceptual Diagram

Zone Broadcasting Conceptual Diagram

Of the three methods, the first system will result in the fewest interference issues.  No matter which method is used, there will be interference issues between the zone transmitters and or the main transmitter where the signal strengths are equal and the audio is 180 degrees out of phase.  These can be moved around slightly by adding delay to the audio signal, but they will always be present.  More about Same Frequency Networks (SFN) and Synchronized FM signals can be found here.  While the zone transmitters are transmitting dissimilar localized information, standard capture effect rules apply.

The system has had limited testing in Salt Lake City, Utah (KDUT) and Avon Park, Florida (WWOJ), which according to the filing and comments, went well.

Geo-Broadcasting is applying to conduct a full test with WRMF in Palm Beach, FL.  The expected installation will include up to 22 zone transmitters.

Conceptually, tightly targeted advertising is not a bad idea.  Advertisers like it because they perceive a better return for their dollar.  The cost of such a system is not insignificant. Transmitter site leases run $1-2K per month, leased data lines, equipment, installation work, equipment shelters, etc will likely run several hundred thousand dollars or more.

If it gets approved by the FCC, it will be interesting to see how it works and whether or not the system is financially justifiable.


The Nautel NV-5 Transmitter

We are currently installing this sweet little transmitter:

Nautel NV-5 FM transmitter

Nautel NV-5 FM transmitter

Like its big brother, the NV-40 at WVPS, the NV-5 is a very cool transmitter.  I am a born sceptic, things like a touch screen displays tend to make me a little nervous, especially on a transmitter connected to a 350 feet tall steel tower right next to the transmitter building.  That is the one major difference between WVPS and this site; at Mount Mansfield there are many things between the transmitter and antenna, this place, not so much.  Even so,  Nautel makes a good product, so troubles are not expected.

The ground strap, AC power, remote control and composite audio connections were all made with out difficulty.  Result, new transmitter on the air:

Nautel NV-5 FM transmitter GUI

Nautel NV-5 FM transmitter GUI

This unit is analog only, but the information on the spectral display is still useful.  The GUI uses Linux with a touch screen, which is a neat feature.

Nautel NV-5 FM transmitter controller board

Nautel NV-5 FM transmitter controller board

In case the front panel GUI goes out, all transmitter controls can be accessed via push buttons on the remote control interface, which is the small board to the right.  The main controller board is on the left.


A pessimist sees the glass as half empty. An optimist sees the glass as half full. The engineer sees the glass as twice the size it needs to be.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
~1st amendment to the United States Constitution

Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
~Benjamin Franklin

The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. To be your own man is hard business. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.
~Rudyard Kipling

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
~Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, Article 19 was discovered, and not invented, and that these frequencies and principles were always in existence long before man was aware of them. Therefore, no one owns them. They are there as free as sunlight, which is a higher frequency form of the same energy.
~Alan Weiner

Free counters!