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Repairing a solid state FM transmitter module

We have a Harris Z5-CD transmitter for one of our FM stations.  Brand H is not my preferred make, however, it was already installed when we bought the station, so I have to live with it.

This particular site gets hit by lightning strikes often.  Normally, it does not affect anything  until the transmitter gets turned off for maintenance.  Then, almost invariably, when turning the transmitter back on one of the modules will fail.  Most often this is manifest when one of the two power supplies shut down causing the transmitter to run no more than 20% power.

The way this is trouble shot is to slide each module out and turn the transmitter back on.  When the power supply stays on, the bad module has been located.  A confirmation test is to check the MOSFET for a short circuit between Drain and Source.  This short circuit condition puts a direct short on the power supply causing it to crow bar and turn off.

So, once the bad module has been located, and the spare module is installed in the transmitter, then what?  Most engineers call Harris and ship the module back for repair.  Most engineers don’t want to mess with unsoldering a surface mount MOSFET and soldering a new one in.   I find it moderately entertaining to fix things myself, so I do not do what most engineers do.

NXP BLF177 MOSFETS

NXP BLF177 MOSFETS

The MOSFET in this particular module is the BLF177, made by NXP.  Harris will sell you one for quite a bit of money.  You can also buy one from Mouser for about half the cost.

Harris FM Z series transmitter PA module with cover removed

Harris FM Z series transmitter PA module with cover removed

Once the parts are obtained, the worst part of the entire job is unsoldering the old MOSFET.  This takes some patience and skill.  What I found works best is to melt some solder on the foil leads and get them good and hot.  Since this MOSFET is already destroyed, we don’t have to worry about heat etc.  The one thing you do not want to do it actually break the MOSFET open.  That is because it contains beryllium oxide, a known carcinogen.  Once all the solder is liquid, carefully pry the foil up with a small screw driver.  There are several components that have to be moved to work on this.

Harris Z series PA module with MOSFETS removed

Harris Z series PA module with MOSFETS removed

After the old MOSFET is removed, clean up the solder pad with a solder pump and solder wick.  I like to use a little liquid flux on the solder wick, it makes things go faster.

Once all the old solder is cleaned off the solder pads, I brush a light coat of liquid flux in the pad.  Again, this makes things go faster.

Harris Z series FM transmitter module new MOSFETs waiting to be soldered

Harris Z series FM transmitter module new MOSFETs waiting to be soldered

The new MOSFETS are very sensitive to static discharge, so I always use a static drain wrist band when handling.  I place both MOSFETs on to the circuit board.  I then solder them on using as little heat as possible from the soldering iron.  Again, the MOSFETs are sensitive to heat and one can easily be destroyed if it gets too hot.

Harris Z FM series PA module repaired

Harris Z FM series PA module repaired

This is the module with the new MOSFETs soldered in. I use defluxing compound to remove all the extra flux. Once it cools off, I test the new module with a DVM:

Harris Z series FM PA circuit board under test, resistance is 3.3 Mohm

Harris Z series FM PA circuit board under test, resistance is 3.3 Mohm

If the MOSFETS are good, they will have an internal resistance of around 3.3 MΩ.  If the module is bad the MOSFETS will read only  a few ohms if shorted:

Harris Z series FM PA module under test, DVM reads 1.6 ohms

Harris Z series FM PA module under test, DVM reads 1.6 ohms

That is how you do it.  I think Harris charges $775.00 per module to repair.  I fixed this one for $240.00, but that is not the reason I did it.  I did it for the fun that was in it.

EAS

Emergency warning siren station

Emergency warning siren station

EAS, or more properly, the Emergency Alert System, is a government mandated system of encoders and decoders designed by the federal government to alert the public in case of war or other emergency.  It, and it’s predecessor, EBS (Emergency Broadcast System) have never been activated by the federal government.  Both systems, however, are used extensively by local and state governments for things like weather alerts, amber alerts, etc.

Back in the mid-90’s the FCC had a chance to redo the EBS and produce something that was a streamlined and effective tool for public warning.  Unfortunately, the EAS system is neither.  Rather, it is a cumbersome system of weekly and monthly tests scheduled around pre-conceived notions that how the system is tested every week will be how the system works in an emergency.  In practice, this is generally a good theory of system design, but it has failed miserably with EAS.  The reasons why are thus:

  • Most all emergencies are local or at most state wide events.  To this day, very few state and or local government emergency managers would be able to activate EAS for their area.  The reason is there is minimal if any interface with the LP-1 EAS stations or station personnel.  Ignorance and apathy on behalf of both radio station personnel and government officials is the main culprit.
  • Most stations are un-maned for large portions of the day.  Even if government official could/did call the station, chances are, nobody would be there.  If by chance, arrangements were made to contact station employees at home, they would have to interface with the EAS equipment remotely, which ads complexity to an already complex system.
  • EAS messages are still mainly relayed from radio station to radio station, the so called daisy chain net work that has been shown numerous times to be unreliable.
  • The system of SAME codes, FIPS identifiers is not necessarily bad, the application in this case leaves something to be desired.  The FCC had a chance to update EAS before the HDTV rollout.  One would assume that any improvements could have been built into the new TV sets that are now being sold, but again, that opportunity was missed.  For example, I suggested that each TV have a set up screen option where the owner could input their zip code.  They could also choose what types of alerts they would want to know about and even base the alerts types on the time of day.  Live in a flood zone, the FFW (Flash Flood Warning) 24/7.  Live in tornado alley, TOR (Tornado Warning), etc.  The cable companies then pipe in the local NOAA all hazards radio station.  All the sudden there is a real national alert system in place using mostly non-broadcast wireless systems.  Add to that the ability to sign up for emergency e-mails and text messages for specific areas (many places are currently doing this) and there is multiple message paths.

The system as is is not reliable and sooner or later that will be shown with a large scale failure.  Recently, the FCC held a summit with the Department of Homeland Security.  The cliff notes version of this event is: Yes, the system can be made better.  Let’s keep throwing the same ideas at the wall and see if anything sticks this time.  Excuse me if I don’t do back flips, this is the same information that was discussed during the last “lets revamp EAS” discussion back in 2005 (04-296).

In the mean time, the EAS continues to be a good fund raiser for the FCC enforcement bureau.  Which, you know, it is easier to go to a licensed radio station and bust them for not re-transmitting the RMT (Required Monthly Test) than it is to go out and bust some of the numerous pirate radio operators, some of whom are operating in the same city/metropolitan area as a field office.

The shame of it is, it could work without a great deal of cost, very well.

A trip to the FM transmitter site

A few pictures from my last trip to one of our FM transmitter sites.  This is a mountain top site, in as much as a medium sized hill is a mountain around here.  This site has a 2.3 mile road through the woods that is almost impassable 3-4 months out of the year.

Previous engineers have walked up the hill with a tool box.  I can say this with all honesty; not me.  In the past they have also rented a helicopter, used a snow cat, snowmobiles or an ATV with snow tracks.  I’d do those things provided they are safe and insured.  As I get older (and wiser), I realize that the only person who going to look after my well being is me.

Anyway, the trip starts here, at the gate:

Gate to transmitter road

Gate to transmitter road

Then it goes up the hill:

Transmitter site access road

Transmitter site access road

Some sections are worse than others:

washed out road

washed out road

Along the way there are some nice views:

City reservior near transmitter site

City reservior near transmitter site

Finally, the gate to the tower farm:

Access gate to transmitter site

Access gate to transmitter site

There are two digital TV stations, several cell phone carriers, some government two way gear, some FM translators, Media Flow, and us at this site.  There are also some Ham radio repeaters off to the side in another building.  All in all, a pretty RF intense site.

The view from the top:

view looking north

view looking north

The reason why we came:

Transmitter room

Transmitter room

That is a 24 year old BE FM5B transmitter.  The back up is a Gates FM5G, which aren’t we glad we have a solid reliable transmitter selection for such a remote site.  Actually, we were supposed to put in a new Nautel V-10 here last year, but the money was spent on computers instead.  Oh well, good thing there will be no computer crashes when we go off the air.

A standard maintenance trip consists of meter readings, comparing the reading to the last set of readings, changing the air filters, checking the remote control and calibrating it to the transmitter, checking the tower light sensor, etc.

Normally, the backup transmitter would be run into the dummy load, but the backup transmitter no longer works.  Parts are not available to fix it, so we operate without a net.  One of the previous general managers asked if that keeps me awake at night, to which my answer was no, not at all.

Stuff that program directors like

If you work at a radio station that still has a local program director instead of one at the corporate programming lair (I know, sooooo old school), then you might be interested in this.  I compiled a list of things that radio station program directors like:

  1. Good ratings.  A good rating book means that they are great program directors and they really know their stuff.  Bad ratings means that engineering dropped the ball (again) when the station went off the air for 30 seconds during afternoon drive.
  2. Taking credit for anything good.  Sort of goes with the good ratings above, but this extends out to all other aspects of a radio station, promotions, sales, news, and even engineering.
  3. New Processing.  Any new gizmo or gadget that changes the sound of the microphone or entire station, for better or worse, is good.  The more flashing lights the better.  The more knobs to adjust the better.  Things that can be plugged into computers and remotely controlled are the ultimate.
  4. More.  More of anything is better, more compression, more expansion, more highs, more mid-range, more lows, more gain, more de-essing, more loudness, more power, more punch, more reverb, more crack, more more more.  If they could just have a little more, the station would be number one.
  5. Any other new piece of equipment.  Watching a program director look at a new studio is like watching a two year old open presents on Christmas morning.  I know, I have a two year old.  Unfortunately, the studios don’t stay new looking for long.
  6. Taping notes up in the studio.  I have one studio where every stationary piece of equipment has a note taped to it.  Mind you, the notes have nothing to do with the equipment they are covering up, they are more like general directions, phone numbers, and other miscellaneous pieces of information.
  7. Free stuff.  Used to be called payola  or plugola, now it is a free lap top, or a trip to Disney paid for by the record rep.  I’ve even seen some mysterious mike processors show up (see number 3).
  8. Rigging up lights to alert operators.  This is a great one, the studio operator does not know if the Marti (or Matrix or ISDN) is active, so they want a light to indicate there is someone there.  Or a light on the phone hotline, or a light for the EAS machine, the back door, the coffee machine, the silence sensor (never mind they are in the studio, they still need a silence sensor light)
  9. Blaming other people when things go wrong.  The program director is infallible.  If something goes wrong, it is somebody else’s fault.  Always. And forever.  Amen.

Some one suggested that I put up the video “More, more, more” by Andrea True Connection to go along #4.  Well, okay, I guess.  It is not a terrible song but the video kinda suxor.  From what I can tell, Andrea True is a former p0r n star that turned signer for just this one hit. Looks like it was filmed on a p0r n set too.

Feel free to add anything else that I may have forgotten.  Of course, this is all in good fun.  I’ll to a “stuff radio engineers like” post as soon as I figure out what that is.

Is internet radio really radio?

Technically speaking, no.  Here is how radio is defined in the dictionary:

ra⋅di⋅o

[rey-dee-oh]
-noun
1. wireless telegraphy or telephony: speeches broadcast by radio.
2. an apparatus for receiving or transmitting radio broadcasts.
3. a message transmitted by radio.

Therefore, the internet, something relying on wired connections for the transmission of data for the most part, is not radio.  A radio station that is streaming audio, is a different matter.

Aside from that technicality, there is something else that is important to note.  Internet broadcasters (AKA webcaster) lack some other key components that make a radio station a radio station;  A specific set of rules that govern their behavior.  Things like profanity, copyright infringement, slander, payola, plugola, syndication rights, advertising rules (things tobacco, alcohol) emergency information, public issues and so on.

A radio station license is granted in the public interest.  Time was that radio station were required to do a certain amount of public service broadcasting, things like the news, religious programs, community interest programs.  Many station still do this.  An internet broadcaster is under so such constraints.   Some would say that is better and it just might be.  However, when Tim Westergren says “don’t call it internet radio, just call it radio,” sir, you are wrong.

Cold War Relic, ATT long lines microwave site Kingston, NY

Once upon a time, in the not too distant past, all long distance communication in the US was handled by one company, AT&T. There was no other company that could transmit data over medium to long distances. The breath and scope of their communications network is not understood by most people these days. Most people know that AT&T handled long distance telephone calls for the Bell Telephone System until the Bell breakup in 1984. However, AT&T did a lot more than long distance phone.

For example, if you watched the network news or network TV show anytime before 1980, it was likely brought to you via AT&T microwave system, known as AT&T long lines. Listen to the news on the radio, same deal. Before the wide spread use of communication satellites and fiber optics, the AT&T microwave relay network was the only way to get various types of electronic media signals from one place to another.

Beginning in the late 1980’s, competing local and long distance telephone companies began installing fiber optic cables between company offices. That coupled with the increased use of satellite systems for mass media video and audio delivery services made the huge AT&T microwave network obsolete. Some of the old microwave sites that are located in down town areas have been reused by local phone companies and cell phone providers. Many of the rural sites now sit empty.

ATT long lines microwave site with towers

ATT long lines microwave site with towers

This is the former AT&T microwave relay site located near Kingston, NY. It is now owned by American Tower, Inc. There are two towers behind the building, only the tower on the right has a few active communications antennas on it.  The taller tower is 190 feet tall and was built in 1957.  The shorter tower is 120 feet tall and was built in 1961.  Both towers and everything on them was made by Western Electric, the same company that manufactured the telephone sets.  Chances are, Western Electric contracted the actual manufacture of equipment out to others, then billed AT&T, their parent company a markup.  Something that would make all MBAs proud.

Western electric 190 foot tower, built in 1957

Western electric 190 foot tower, built in 1957

This tower was built in 1957.  The structure and galvanizing are still in excellent condition.

The large antennas you see on the towers are microwave horn antennas. They are no longer in use. Several transmitters and receivers would have been connected to each one of these antennas by use of RF multiplexers. Each microwave transmitter/receiver would have had several data channels. Generally, this was C Band microwave equipment, so it was in the 4, 6,  and 8 gHz frequency range.

Western Electric KS-15676 microwave antenna

Western Electric KS-15676 microwave antenna

All of this telephone traffic was transmitted on digital data channels un-encrypted. Many have argued that this allowed the government (most notably the NSA or National Security Agency) to intercept and listen to most domestic long distance telephone calls within the US. There is a book called Puzzle palace by James Bamford if you are interested in NSA history. It was written more than 20 years ago, so it doesn’t really apply today, but it is an interesting look at what the government was up to.

The building itself is huge, the first floor is 16,000+ square feet and the second floor is 10,000+ square feet. Only about 1000 square feet of this space is actively being used.

I believe this building was built in the late 1940’s or early 1950’s, just as Kingston was growing into a major IBM manufacturing site. It has remnants of the ATT coaxial based system that was used prior to microwaves.  The IBM buildings are located a few miles to the south east of this location, they are another cold war relic for discussion later. The IBM buildings were a major computer research and development site in the 1950’s until it closed in 1992. It was assumed that the Soviets had several spy satellites trying to steal secrets from the area, and the IBM facility was a primary nuclear target.

Blast baffle for generator cooling air intake

Blast baffle for generator cooling air intake

The microwave relay site has 12 inch re-enforced concrete walls. The ventilation air intakes have blast baffles to prevent a pressure wave (from a nuclear explosion) from blowing the ventilation equipment off of its mounts.

pnumatic actuator panel, seals all outside openings with steel blast doors

pnumatic actuator panel, seals all outside openings with steel blast doors

All of the outside openings were able to be sealed with steal blast deflectors using a pneumatic control panel located in the control room. There was a five minute timer, presumably to allow the HVAC units to be secured before the doors where closed. They where heavy gauge steel shutter designed to deflect the pressure wave of a nuclear explosion. Since this is an earlier building, it is likely that it is built to a 2 PSI pressure wave spec.  Newer buildings were built to 20 or even 50 PSI.  This microwave relay site would not have withstood a direct hit from a nuclear warhead, especially the higher yield warheads that came later on.

Water chillers for HVAC system

Water chillers for HVAC system

There where three large water chillers to provide cooling to the HVAC units. Since this was the 1950’s all of the electronic equipment would have had tubes, which would have generated a lot of heat while operating. There were two loops in the HVAC system. The refrigerant loop, which ran between these units and the huge condensers on the second floor roof, and the chilled water loop which ran between these units and the air handlers located in various parts of the building.

There is a bomb shelter in the basement. I found a couple of olive drab cans of civil defense water laying around. The lights were not working at the bottom of the stairs, so I chose not to go into the bomb shelter itself.

Stairs going down to the bomb shelter

Stairs going down to the bomb shelter

“Okay everybody, the missiles are on there way, so lets head down these stairs and pray”

There where two diesel generators, one was 325 KW which could run the entire building. The other was a 200 KW which could run the critical building functions. The fuel storage consisted of two 10,000 gallon tanks buried in the ground outside. Each steel fuel tank had a cathodic protection circuit. Basically a small negative electrical current was passed to the steel tank to keep it from rusting. Apparently it worked because when the tanks were removed in 2000 after 45 years in the ground, the primer was still on the outside of the tank.

Electrical switch gear, part of power company sub-station

Electrical switch gear, part of power company sub-station

The building has it’s own power substation. The electric from the utility company comes off the pole at 13,800 volts and goes to a large step down transformer on a pad outside. From there 480 volts is fed to this switch panel, where it is routed to motors loads or other step down transformers within the building.

Frame room floor, equipment removed

Frame room floor, equipment removed

On the main floor, there were rows and rows of wire terminal equipment, microwave transmitters, receivers and data and RF multiplexers in racks. The room in the above picture is about 10,000 square feet, there is another 6,000 square feet beyond the plastic heat barrier. This microwave gear received and transmitted data from Albany and Germantown to the north; Poughkeepsie, Putnam Valley, Ellenville, and Spring Valley to the south. All of that equipment is gone now, replaced by empty space.

Now the whole place is a little creepy.

There are about 500 copper wire pairs of telephone cable that came into various parts of the building to carry the DS-1 and DS-3 circuits that interfaced with the TELCO office in Kingston.

All in all, this was a serious building, no expense was spared in the construction and equipment outfitting.  The entire building is shielded with copper mesh screen embedded in the concrete walls.  There where redundant systems on top of redundant systems, something that you do not see these days, even in government buildings such as emergency operation centers (EOCs) and 911 call centers.

IBOC=POS

The further we get into HD radio, Ibiquity‘s IBOC system, the weaker it looks.  Ibiquity has admitted that the digital signal lacks building penetration, calling indoor reception “impossible” and “non-existent” 10 miles from the transmitter site.   They have also stated the system has serious coverage problems during driving tests. Even with the proposed power increase from -20 dB to -14 dB, a 6 dB increase (squaring the power) showed some improvement, but still had significant signal problems.

Good thing all of those early adopters plunked down $25,000.00 in licensing fees to use it.  At least it provided “High Definition” radio, right?  Well, not exactly.  The HD in HD radio really doesn’t stand for anything, so says Ibiquity, it is just two letters they picked to name the system.  As far as the improved audio quality between the analog FM signal and the HD Radio signal goes, will the average listener care?  I doubt it very much.

Well then, what, exactly do stations get for implementing HD radio?  For a cut of the action, Ibiquity will allow stations to broadcast a second channel, which, isn’t that nice, especially since Ibiquity is paying all of those FCC spectrum use fees, right?  Wrong again, the station pays those fees every year and they can get quite hefty for class B radio stations in major markets.

Then there is the complete lack of public awareness, which, in light of the above problems, might be a good thing.  To date, only one car manufacturer, BMW, has installed stock HD radios in any car models.  If one where to go to a best buy and ask for a “digital radio,” they would likely show a radio with a digital readout on the tuner.  If one were to ask for a “HD Radio” they may or may not know what you are asking for.

Ibiquity’s answer to this is “Well, you guys are radio stations, right?  You should be able to market this system yourself.”  Okay, true enough.  If station WXYZ ran a HD radio awareness campaign, where would they send the bill?  That would be fair, after all, for using the station’s inventory to promote somebody else’s product.  Would Ibiquity take some money off the substantial licensing fee for this?  Somehow, I doubt it.

AM HD radio is is even more of a mess.  On AM HD Radio stations, analog signals are limited to 5 kHz, slightly better than telephone audio.  The digital signal washes out the first two adjacent channels on either side of the assigned carrier and can only be used during the day.  To me, last time I listened to it, it sounded strident and harsh, sort of like Sirius Satellite Radio, altogether another topic.

Then, there is the FCC mandating a proprietary codec for digital broadcasting.  I am not the only one who is being rubbed the wrong way by this, others have commented on it too.

If we are serrious about adopting a digital radio format in this country, all of the above issues need to be worked out.  It is time to sit down and take a long, hard, critical look at the IBOC system and evaluate it on its merits, not its marketing.  If indeed, an IBOC system is the best way to impliment digital radio, then the kinks need to be worked out now, else it will spell the end of part 73 broadcasting.

The FCC is studying the state of Journalism

The FCC has drafted a Notification of Inquiry (NOI) examining the state of media journalism in America. Why?  No harm can come from this, right?  Let us read a little further:

A major issue the report details is the possibility of “behavioral rules” for broadcasters, according to the official. Behavioral rules might include guidelines that broadcasts serve the public interest.

Bringing back Cold War-era guidelines mandating that broadcasters do “non-entertainment” programming is another idea being examined, according to the official.

From CNSNews.com

Doh! Now that most radio stations have fired their news departments, the government wants news.  Frankly, I think it is a dumb idea.  The hands of time can’t be turned back so there is no use trying.

There are radio stations out there that provide good local and national news, most NPR stations for example.  There are also a few commercial stations still doing it.  Those that can make money on it will and that is the way it should be.

I listen to the local NPR station’s (WAMC) program called “The Media Project.”  It is an interesting show where a Television news anchor, a local newspaper editor and the radio station president talk about media issues.  Often, it turns into a lament about how the internet news sources are cutting into their own audience because the internet is “free.”  The news paper editor in particular often feels that he is shouldering the burden (by paying the reporter’s salaries) of gathering the news and the free loading internet people who write blogs, like this one, merely leach off of the newspaper’s hard work.  And he has a point.

So charge for it.  I’d pay a $3-5 per month fee to have full on line access to a good local paper.  I think many other people would too.  When they started giving away their content is when they got into trouble and that is their own fault.  This would be a good formula:

  1. Media outlets (newspapers, TV stations, Radio stations, Cable companies, etc) get together come up with a policy for online content.
  2. A good example would be, limited free access to national stories and front page items and advertisements.  Charge a nominal subscription fee for locally generated content and full access.  Charge a higher fee for content without advertising (except classifieds).
  3. Create a website that is laid out like a newspaper.  Keep all the sections the same and make it very easy to navigate around in.

Some newspapers, like the New York Times, are already doing things like this.  The reality is that online media is here to stay.  Those legacy media outlets that want to survive are going to have to figure out a way to compete and make money online.

Donate a car to support radio

What are we, the National Kidney Founation?  I found this interesting link on the local NPR station website:  Donate a Car to support WAMC

For some reason, I like Car Talk.  Did I also mention I like getting my teeth drilled at the dentist and poking myself in the eye with sticks?  I am a radio engineer, after all, and pain is a lifestyle.

So, I’ve been keeping my eyes open (stick and all) for a possible donation candidate, and here it is:

car ready to be picked up for donation

car ready to be picked up for donation

A 19?? VW bug jammed between two trees.  This one is at our FM transmitter site in Peekskill, NY.  It has been there for several years, probably boosted from a nearby major metropolis and taken for a joy ride out to the country.  I checked the trunk (the one in the front) for bodies, and there are none.

So, when can you come and get it?  Oh, you will need a chain saw because the trees have grown a little bit since the car was parked here.

Tower down

You know it is going to be a bad day when:

a farmer mowing grass took a wrong turn on June 16, KFEQ AM lost a guy wire and eventually one of its four towers came toppling down

From Above Ground Level magazine.

Is hiring the farmer down the road to come and mow the AM field a smart thing to do?  It depends, I suppose, on whether or not your towers will be standing afterward.  Hopefully the guy had some insurance, if not then the station is basically screwed.  The article did not mention that, although it did state that “The station is wieghing it’s options,” Which does not sound good.

The good news is at least they were doing the maintenance.  Most AM stations these days don’t even bother to mow the fields.  Look at this picture:

Tall grass at an AM transmitter site.  Owner says don't cut it.

Tall grass at an AM transmitter site. Owner says don't cut it.

It is not that I don’t want the grass cut, I do.  However, I am not going to pay for it out of my own pocket, that is ridiculous.  So, it grows.

Axiom


A pessimist sees the glass as half empty. An optimist sees the glass as half full. The engineer sees the glass as twice the size it needs to be.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
~1st amendment to the United States Constitution

Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
~Benjamin Franklin

The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. To be your own man is hard business. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.
~Rudyard Kipling

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
~Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, Article 19

...radio was discovered, and not invented, and that these frequencies and principles were always in existence long before man was aware of them. Therefore, no one owns them. They are there as free as sunlight, which is a higher frequency form of the same energy.
~Alan Weiner

Free counters!