March 2011
« Feb   Apr »



TuneIn Radio

I posted previously about how to listen to radio station streams on an Android phone. In the time between then and now, somebody has come up with a much better way to do it.  TuneIn Radio is both a website for streaming and a mobile application for Android and iPhone users alike.

I have found that every local radio station that has a web stream is listed.  The major overseas broadcasters like the BBC, CBC, Radio Netherlands, and so on as well as all of the non-government US owned shortwave stations are listed.  As their website states:

With over 30,000 FM and AM radio stations from across the globe, TuneIn Radio makes radio local, no matter how far from home you might be.

Far easier than what I posted before. Further, this is exactly the type of service that terrestrial broadcasters needed the most; a concise consolidated listing broken down by genre and locality, to compete with Pandora, Slacker,,  et. al.

In order to download TuneIn Radio, point your mobile web browser to and it will automatically direct you to the proper download source.  Or one could search through the Apple store or Android Market to find the app.

Radiation levels: Compare and Contrast

Not related to radio engineering, however, I’ve been doing daily radiation measurements at my house (upstate NY) since the Fukushima disaster. A few bits of house keeping information first: This is a CD V-700 radiation meter, which is a model 6 manufactured by Anton. It was last calibrated in 1986. When I place the Geiger tube over the operational check source, it goes up to about 2 mr/hr as described in the owner’s manual. It may not be completely accurate, but it is accurate enough for this experiment.

This video was taken on March 17, 2011. It sets a good reference for normal background radiation levels:

This video was taken on March 27, 2011. It shows a significant increase in background radiation. Further, much of this appears to be gamma radiation, as the gamma shield is closed during this video:

Both of these videos were taken on the most sensitive (x1) setting. It shows that the radiation level is about 8 to 10 times above normal. It is a cause for concern, but not alarm. Not yet. If it continues at this level for several days or weeks, then the overall radiation exposure will begin to accumulate. Right now, it is about the same as taking two NY to Los Angles flights per day, according to this chart (0.35 mr/hr = 3.5 uSv per hour x 24 hours = 84 uSv per day):

Radiation chart

Radiation Chart

As of March 28, 2011, the wind has shifted more to the south west and the levels have dropped somewhat. From our beloved press corps, there have been a few reports here or there on this, most with the standard “this is nothing to worry about” disclaimer. I have also noticed a series of stories and reports that radiation is not all that bad, don’t worry about it, living next to a nuclear plant is fun(!), and we don’t know as much about radiation as we thought we did. I don’t know about all that, I’d rather base my opinion on the scientific body of evidence gathered over the last one hundred years or so. The conclusion of that information is that radiation is bad for human physiology and exposure should be limited.

There is also a crowd source website called “Radiation network,” which is showing all the levels across the US are normal. This makes me wonder about their instruments and or candor, you can draw your own conclusions.

Unbalanced to Balanced Audio

There is a large number of things that amazes me on an almost daily basis.  To wit: a local mom and pop radio station called me because they couldn’t get their computer program to work right.  I decided that I’d give them an hour or two, in exchange for my hourly labor rate, and see if I could fix their problem.  The issue at hand was loud hum and other noise on the input source.  I knew before I even looked at it that the likely culprit was a ground loop.

It was worse than I imagined, with several unbalanced and balanced feeds improperly interconnected, line level audio going to a microphone level input and so forth.  I explained to the guy about putting line level into a mic level input, something akin to plugging a 120 volt appliance into a 240 volt outlet.  Improperly terminated balanced audio nullifies all of the common mode noise rejection characteristics of the circuit.

In any case, there are several ways to go from balanced to unbalanced without too much difficulty.  The first way is to wire the shield and Lo together on the unbalanced connector.  This works well with older, transformer input/output gear, so long as the unbalanced cables are kept relatively short.

simple balanced to unbalanced audio connection

simple balanced to unbalanced audio connection

Most modern professional audio equipment has active balanced input/output interfaces, in which case the above circuit will unbalance the audio and decrease the CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio), increasing the chance of noise, buzz and so on getting into the audio. In this case the CMRR is about 30 dB at 60 Hz.  Also, newer equipment with active balanced input/output, particularly some brands of sound cards will not like to have the Lo side grounded. In a few instances, this can actually damage the equipment.

Of course, one can go out and buy an Henry Match Box or something similar and be done with it.  I have found, however, the active components in such devices can sometimes fail, creating hum, distortion, buzz or no audio at all.  Well designed and manufactured passive components (transformers and resistors) will provide excellent performance with little chance of failure.  There several methods of using transformers to go from balanced to unbalanced or vice versa.

Balanced to unbalanced audio using 1:1 transformer

Balanced to unbalanced audio using 1:1 transformer

Using a 600:600 ohm transformer is the most common.  Unbalanced audio impedance of consumer grade electronics can vary anywhere from 270 to 470 ohms or more.  The 10,000 ohm resistor provides constant loading regardless of what the unbalanced impedance.   In this configuration, CMMR (Common-Mode Rejection Ratio) will be 55 dB at 60 Hz, but gradually decreases to about 30 dB for frequencies above 1 KHz.

Balanced to unbalanced audio using a 4:1 transformer

Balanced to unbalanced audio using a 4:1 transformer

A 600:10,000 ohm transformer will give better performance, as the CMMR will be 120 dB at 60 Hz and 80 dB at 3 KHz, remaining high across the entire audio bandwidth.   The line balancing will be far better into the high impedance load.  This circuit will have about 12dB attenuation, so plan accordingly.

For best results, use high quality transformers like Jensen, UTC, or even WE 111C (although they are huge) can be used.  I have found several places where these transformers can be “scrounged,” DATS cards on the old 7300 series Scientific Atlanta satellite receivers, old modules from PRE consoles, etc.  A simple audio “balun” can be constructed for little cost or effort and sound a whole lot better than doing it the wrong way.

A brief list, there are other types/manufactures that will work also:

Ratio Jensen Hammond UTC
1:1 (600:600) JT11E series 804, 560G A20, A21, A43
4:1 (10K:600) JT10K series 560N A35

Keep all unbalanced cable runs as short as possible.  In stereo circuits, phasing is critically important, so pay attention to how the transformer windings are connected.

Goodbye NY Times mobile edition, I will miss you

The New York Times wrestles with a New Media business model.  I have been reading the NY times on line edition for years. I find their articles interesting and often more comprehensive than other media counterparts, even if I don’t necessarily agree with the point of view.  When I got my Android phone, I downloaded the NYT mobile application and enjoyed reading up on the latest news as time permitted.  It became part of my morning routine.

On March 28th, all of that will change. The NYT will put up a paywall, charging $15 to $35 per month for anyone going past a twenty article threshold.

I have no plans to subscribe to any of these plans.  I will limit my NYT reading to the twenty articles per month and then get my news elsewhere.   This goes to show, once something is given away for free, it becomes very hard to charge for it later on.

This is a problem that new media types, myself included,  have yet to figure out; how to make money with it.  This blog is a good example; I work away, trying to come up with original material or expound on other’s work from an in the trenches point of view.   I have a core group of regular readers (thank you!) and quite a bit of search engine traffic just passing through.  Every once in a while, I get a good link in from slash/dot, boing boing, or dig, but those are rare.  Some small amounts of money are made here and there, but could I live off of this? No.  It is a labor of love more than anything else.  Something to keep my mind occupied while in between my children’s pickups and drop offs.  This is good because otherwise a fair amount of trouble could ensue.

While I empathize with the New York Times, those rates seem a bit exorbitant for an online distribution system.

The Antenna Array of Intrigue

This looks interesting and many people have speculated as to what it does.  The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, AKA HAARP in the parlance of the acronym heavy US military, is designed to do Ionospheric research.

HAARP antenna array, Gakona, AK

HAARP antenna array, Gakona, AK. Courtesy HAARP

That array is described as 180 crossed dipoles in a rectangular planar array.  Transmitter power output is reported as 3.6 MW with an ERP of 5.1 GW in the frequency range of 2.6-10 MHz.  That’s a whole bunch of watts.  The array was built around 2004 and operates intermittently at various powers and frequencies.

HAARP array close up, Gakona, AK

HAARP array close up, Gakona, AK. Courtesy of HAARP

A view of the individual antennas.  They look like broadbanded fan dipoles arranged in cross configuration.  Depending on how they are phased, the gain of this system would be a factor of 10 or slightly more.

HAARP receiving antenna, Gakona, AK

HAARP receiving antenna, Gakona, AK. Courtesy of HAARP

Broadbanded receiving antenna.

All photos courtesy of HAARP.

The main focus of this system is to study the Ionosphere, which is a critical part of wireless communications.  In the HF frequency range, (and to some extent MF) signals bounce off of the Ionosphere (so called “skip”) and can travel many thousands of miles on relatively low transmitter powers.  All satellite based communications pass through the Ionosphere on the way to and back from the satellite, as does GPS.  Back in 1990, when the US Navy and Air Force proposed the project, HF radio was a key part of their communications network.  Since then, mostly satellite modes have taken over that role, but HF is still relied on heavily. Further, studying the cause and effects of such things as Aurora Borealis, the Van Allen belt, high altitude nuclear burst,VLF, ULF, and other communications phenomena is important not just to the military, but society as a whole. We rely heavily on the communications infrastructure for things like cellphones, broadband internet, telephone service, banking, credit card transactions, etc. It has been long known that disruptions in the ionosphere can impact all of those services.

The problem with the Ionosphere is its location right on the edge of space.  Too high for aircraft or weather balloons to reach, too low for satellites, it remains, for the most part, a mystery.  The program was founded to research this area by beaming focused energy to small areas and observing the results from a number of different locations.

Of course, the system is not without controversy.  It is a big scary looking antenna system in the middle of the woods in the far north. Conspiracy theorists have accused the US of using HAARP as a weather modification scheme.  Since it’s construction it has been blamed for:

  • droughts
  • floods
  • hurricanes
  • thunderstorms
  • earthquakes
  • major power outages
  • TWA flight 800
  • Gulf war syndrome
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Movement of the magnetic poles

And others.  Naturally, none of these things ever happened before the array was constructed in 2004. In another wrinkle, TWA-800 crashed in 1996 off of Long Island, NY. In all fairness to the Conspiracy Theorist, USTPO number 4,686,605 (Eastlund/ATPI) does indeed mention weather modification as a theoretical possibility.  While 5.1 GW may seem like a lot of power, I doubt very much that it could compete with the Sun’s output and change weather patterns in any perceptible way.

Everything about this program is top secret, or rather T O P S E C R E T or above.  Exactly how it accomplishes these things, no one can say. As with any T O P S E C R E T government program, ample access and pictures are available to the public from a variety of sources and annual open houses that are held.

People generally fear what they don’t understand.

In this respect, the government, through perhaps the sometimes security conscious military, has done itself no favors.

The reality is this:  Taking into account free space loss, the distance (100 to 350 KM or 62 to 218 miles) and power levels reportedly being used, the power density is no more than 3 μW/cm2, as given by the HAARP website. My own calculations show:  If the ERP is 97.1 dBW or 127.1 dBm, then the free space loss at 100 KM and 2.6 MHz is 80.7 dB, which would be the worst case scenario and might not be technically possible with those antennas (it would be much larger due to antenna inefficiencies at 2.6 MHz). However, with that configuration, the power density is 0.47 μW/cm2, far below the stated 3 μW/cm2. To put this into proportion, the Sun averages about 7.32 W/cm2 over the entire surface of the Earth.  More near the equator, less near the poles.  To compare the two; HAARP=3μW/cm2, the Sun=7,320,000μW/cm2.  That is not good enough for some because HAARP is located far north, about 62° N latitude, so it gets less sun. Even so, the power from the Sun at 62° N is still many orders of magnitude greater than the HAARP array.

There are plenty of things to be concerned about in this world, this is very low on the list. The conspiracy theorists should do a little more in depth research on their subject matter, it would lend a bit of credibility to their story.

BBC Orfordness, closing down on March 27, 2011

I received this link in the comments of a previous post and found it interesting. The BBC will be closing down 648 KHz, Ordfordness England at the end of March, no doubt due to budget cuts. The site has been in use since 1972. Prior to this, site was formerly an OTH array, COBRA MIST, which was then adopted for MW broadcasting. The video is 17 minutes long, but, if you are interested in radio history, technical aspects of AM broadcasting and the like, it is interesting.

Tribute to BBC 648 kHz Orfordness – The Enthusiast’s Version from Jonathan Marks on Vimeo.

These are 600 KW transmitters. As Andy Matheson, transmitter engineer, explains, with a wry smile “I find them (transmitters) very satisfying, I enjoy either day work or shift work, just really working with transmitters has always been very satisfying…” I couldn’t have said it better myself.

Overhaul of the Onan 12JC4R generator

I was fortunate enough to acquire this generator last fall.  It was new in 1969 and has unknown hours on it, but it appears in decent shape.  I am going to do a level two overhaul and install it as backup power for my house/shop.  The first order of business is a complete inspection.  I discovered a few problems; the starter didn’t crank, the distributor was loose, and the carburetor had some burned out chunk of metal attached to it.

Onan 12JC4R generator

Onan 12JC4R generator

First, the starter:  These units use a Prestolite MEO3006 starter, which is common to several Chrysler products from the late ’60s and early ’70s.  This is obviously a replacement unit, as it is not “Onan Green.”  When I hooked a battery up and tried to turn the motor over, the start relay clicked but nothing else happened.  I dismounted the starter and removed the starter solenoid.  The interior of the starter motor looked in good condition, which points the solenoid.  Sure enough, I removed the back of that unit and found two wires burned through and a large blackened area.  While I had the starter off, I hooked it up to a 12 volt battery and it worked fine.  A new starter costs $469.00, a new solenoid cost $59.00.  I opted for the solenoid.

Onan 12JC4R burned out generator starter solenoid

Onan 12JC4R burned out generator starter solenoid

The next thing is the distributor.  I was checking the points and contemplating replacing the breaker points with an electronic ignition when I discovered the distributor could turn 1/8 of a turn in each direction, as when making timing adjustments.

Onan 12JC 4R distributor clamp

Onan 12JC 4R distributor clamp

I used a 3/8 box wrench and tighten up the clamp holding the distributor shaft.  It took several turns and makes me wonder why it was loose.  I will have to check the timing with a light once I get it running.  This also could be why the generator was not running when we took it out of service.

Onan 12JC 4R rotor and breaker points

Onan 12JC 4R rotor and breaker points

As for the points, they look brand new, as does the rotor and distributor cap.

Onan 12JC 4R generator spark plug, champion H8C

Onan 12JC 4R generator spark plug, champion H8C

The spark plugs look well used and the plug wires look original.

Finally, there was an electric choke mechanism on the carburetor which is completely unnecessary for a propane fueled unit.  The choke plate itself was wired open.  The electric choke was was burned open, so I removed the assembly.  I then spent some time at the local NAPA cross referencing parts.  Here is a tune up list:

Nomenclature Onan part (old) Onan part (new) Napa Part Alternate
Oil Filter 122A185 122-0193 1084 Fram PH16
Points* 166P245 166-0245 CS709
Rotor 166P234 166-0234 AL58/AL52
Distributor cap 166B307 166-0235 AL91
Condenser* 166P310 166-0310 AL38
Ignition Coil** 166B310 166-0859-02 701002 PRX 405011
Plug wire #1 167A1410 167-1602 701064
Plug wire 2,3,4 167A1409 167-1602 701063
Spark Plug 167-4 167- Champ H8C***
Air Filter 140B640 140-1907 7-02241
Starter 191C324 191-0324 Prestolite MEO3006
Solenoid N/A 191-0433A ST103
*Electronic ignition set N/A 166-0825 Pertronics 1545**
**Ignition coil W/PRX 1545 PRX 405011

*Condenser and breaker points can be substituted for electronic ignition kit, either Onan 166-0825 or Pertronics 1545 with Pertronics PRX 405011 coil.
**Pertronics electronic ignition must be used with Pertronics coil
***Champion RH8C plugs should be used with replacement wires without noise suppression plug boots.

This is for an Onan 12JC generator circa 1969 with a Studebaker engine. Other models/years may vary.  The other issue with this unit is there is no supervisory monitoring and control.  There is no oil pressure loss, overheat or overcrank faults.  This is why the starter solenoid failed.  To remedy that situation, I started to design a better control circuit.  Then I looked around on the inner tubes and found somebody had already done this.  DynaGen makes the GSC400p which has can monitor oil pressure, engine temperature, frequency, engine RPM, hours, voltage and current.  It can fault for any out of tolerance condition, as programmed by the user.

Retrofit generator controller

Retrofit generator controller

I plan to install this in the original control box, leaving the original control circuit intact by using the remote start/stop connections.  I keep the original remote/start/stop switch and hand crank switch in place for use if the fancy controller fails.

The World Turned Upside Down

I have been watching the events unfold in Japan.  It is truly astounding the power of Mother Nature.  While several US networks seem to be tempering their coverage of the nuclear fuel melt, and yes, there are multiple reactor fuel melts in progress, other sources are forthright.  The BBC seems to be on top of things, as well as Russia Today.

Thus far:

  1. No fewer than four hydrogen explosions have taken place in all four reactors at the Fukushima-1 Power plant.  The after the third explosion yesterday in unit 2, there are two major concerns; breach of the reactor vessel(s) and run away nuclear fission.  After that explosion, the pressure in the unit 2 reactor suppression chamber dropped from three atmospheres to one atmosphere, indicating the suppression ring had breached.  Currently the nuclear disaster is categorized as a 6/7, surpassing Three Mile Island.  The worst case scenario:  Reactor Unit #2 completely breaches, this unit contains Mox fuel Note: unit #3 contains the Mox fuel. (mixed plutonium/uranium oxide), which is far more dangerous than the fuels in the other reactor vessels.  Mox fuel has a lower melting point and could potentially melt into a pool at the bottom of the reactor vessel resuming fission.  Criticality?  Yes, but not the high order type as seen in a nuclear weapon.
  2. The root cause of the disaster is loss of cooling after the reactors where shut down.  The nuclear fuel cores require cooling for at least two to four weeks after shutdown.  The backup diesel generators went off line approximately one hour after the units were automatically shut down during the earth quake.  Three probable causes for this have been proposed;  the electrical switch gear for the generators was in the basement of the generator building, which was flooded by the tsunami, fuel contamination/fuel loss, and submergence of the GENSETs by sea water.  All of three of these scenarios points to a design flaw.
  3. Radiation levels have varied but are elevated, peaking at various times before and after each explosion.  Until this morning, the major radiation plumes were being blown off shore.  The wind has become variable, causing the down wind zones to shift.
  4. Prevailing east winds could blow some of the contamination to the west coast of the US within 36-48 hours, east coast by 48-72 hours and in 7-10 days there will likely be a band of radioactive particles in the jet stream that circles the globe in the northern high latitudes.

Good explanations: MIT NSE Nuclear Information Hub

I never though I’d recommend a Russian News media source, but they seem to be nailing it.  There is also some coverage on NHK shortwave frequencies:

All times UTC / target areas: af (Africa) as (Asia) eu (Europe) na (North America) pa (Pacific)

0500-0530: 5, 975 KHz (eu) 6,110 KHz (na) 9,770 KHz (af) 15,205 KHz (as) 17,810 KHz (as)
1000-1030: 9,605 KHz (as) 9,625 KHz (pa) 9,840 KHz (pa) 11,780  KHz (as)
1200-1230: 6,120 KHz (na) 9,625 KHz (pa) 9,790 KHz (eu)
1200-1300: 9,695 KHz (as)
1300-1330: 9,875 KHz (as)
1400-1430: 5,955 KHz (as) 9,875 KHz (as) 21,560 KHz (af)

But not to worry, everything is okay.  There will be no detrimental effects of this, whatsoever.

Regardless, I have headed down to the basement and dug up my CD V-700 RAD meter.  I salvaged this from the dumpster at WPTR after one of the contract engineers threw it away in the early 1990’s.  I believe I used this meter to measure the radiation from the tubes in the BT-25A and the MW50B transmitters.

According to the “Operational Check Source” on the side of the meter, it still works and is pretty close to calibration level.  Even if it is not totally accurate, it will still indicated an increase of radiation.

Anton Model 6 CD V-700 radiation meter

Anton Model 6 CD V-700 radiation meter

This is a Anton Model 6, which is the most sensitive of the V-700 series meters.  It can be used to check background radiation levels and/or contamination of food or clothing.  The best plan is not to ingest radioactive particles in food and water.  Why wonder about it, when you can know?

Broadband for First Responders Act of 2011

I found this bit of proposed legislation by Peter King (R-NY) interesting:

Not later than 10 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the paired electromagnetic spectrum bands of 420–440 megahertz and 450–470 megahertz recovered as a result of the report and order required under subsection (c) shall be auctioned off by the Federal Communications Commission through a system of competitive bidding meeting the requirements of section 309 of the Communications Act of 1934.

Does this mean broadcasters will be loosing their Part 74 Broadcast Auxilliary RPU licenses?  Section 74.402(4)(b)(4) lists those frequencies as 450.03125 through 450.950 and 455.03125 though 455.950 MHz in various channel configurations.  These frequencies are use mostly for RPU but are also used for TSL systems. This is the NITA frequency allocation chart.  The RPU frequencies are shared but I doubt an entity that has paid through the nose for exclusive use of a frequency band would be interested in that. Further, according to Part 97.301(a), the 70 cm Amateur Radio frequencies are from 420 to 450 MHz.  That has the Amateur Radio users quite upset, and rightly so.  I don’t know if this has filtered down to broadcasters yet, but loosing RPU and TSL frequencies would likely be an inconvenience to say the least.

What gives?  Reading through the bill, it seems there would be a multi-part shuffle over several years to move the “first responders” to a nation wide system on the 758-768 and 788-798 MHz frequencies.  The then “empty” frequencies would be auctioned off, except some of them aren’t so empty.

Does this mean that all the existing police, fire, ambulance radios will be phased out in favor of the 700 MHz units?  Didn’t they just install a bunch of trunked 800 MHz systems recently? Wasn’t that an expensive boondoggle that still has yet to be sorted out in some locations?  Ah well, its only $2 billion or so tax payers dollars, which, to fight terrorism, anything goes.

Creek floods AM tower array

We have received somewhere between 5-6 inches of rain in the last four days. That, coupled with the deep snow pack and the still frozen ground has lead to some flooding. The WLNA antenna array is located along the Peekskill Hollow Creek in northern Westchester County, NY.  Back in 1980, it might have seemed like a good idea to locate an AM station in a tidal swamp along the Hudson river.  I am sure the land was not that expensive and from an engineering standpoint, having a continually wet, partially brackish ground system may have seemed like a slam dunk.

Unfortunately, the idea never really panned out in application.  First of all, the neighbors had other ideas, fighting the radio station owners all the way to the NY State Supreme court.  Secondly, technically, it never lived up to expectations.  The original non-directional antenna on 1430 was a 1/2 wave tower which by all accounts, worked very well.  It did not, however, allow for night time service, which is why the new sight and array was sought.  By the time the system was built, AM was already in steep decline and I doubt the owners ever recouped their investment.

Fast forward to today.  All five base insulators are under water and the transmitter is off the air.  These are pictures from last Wednesday after the first flood waters receded from the Monday/Tuesday storm.  I imagine it looks worse this morning, although I don’t own a boat and won’t be wading out there to look.

Base insulator, tower 2 WLNA array, Peekskill, NY

Base insulator, tower 2 WLNA array, Peekskill, NY

This is tower two of the daytime antenna array.  Clearly, it  spent some time underwater.  We cleaned off all the debris from all the tower bases.  A far worse prospect are the ATU’s:

WLNA tower 1 ATU, Peekskill, NY

WLNA tower 1 ATU, Peekskill, NY

This is the Antenna Tuning Unit for tower 1, which is the reference tower for both the day and night arrays.  The E.F. Johnson contactor in the bottom of the cabinet was fully submerged for an undetermined amount of time.  The bottom of the unit is covered in fine silt.  The high water mark is visible on the right side of the aluminum cabinet.

The contactor is going to need to be replaced, or at least rebuilt.  The ATU cabinet will need to be washed out.  There are two other ATUs that suffered the same fate.

WLNA antenna array, towers 4 and 5

WLNA antenna array, towers 3 and 5

This is the end of the catwalk next to the Peekskill Hollow Creek looking west towards the Hudson River.  The water level reached the bottom of the catwalks and had receded about 4 feet when this picture was taken.

WLNA antenna array, tower 5, peekskill, ny

WLNA antenna array, tower 5, Peekskill, NY

Lookup east, upstream at tower 5.

WLNA antenna array looking north, Peekskill, NY

WLNA antenna array looking north, Peekskill, NY

This is the antenna array looking north, with my back facing the creek.  Tower one is the center tower, tower two is on the right and tower four is on the left.  The daytime array consists of towers 1, 2, and 3 bearing 300 degrees.  The night time array consists of towers 1, 4, and 5 bearing 335 degrees, so the array makes a big X in the swamp.  More from the FCC database.

It is going to take a lot of work to clean out all these ATUs and repair the damage.  Clean water is at least 1000 feet away.  My question is; why bother?  Once upon a time, this station was viable, well thought of in the community, etc.  Now, I doubt anyone knows it is off the air.  The current ownership over the last thirteen years did, what I’d like to call, a controlled flight into the ground.  Axing staff, cutting maintenance and generally neglecting the station.  Why not take it dark for a while and figure out what to do with it.  Likely somebody would buy it, even if for the land it sits on.  Anyway, the grind continues…


A pessimist sees the glass as half empty. An optimist sees the glass as half full. The engineer sees the glass as twice the size it needs to be.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
~1st amendment to the United States Constitution

Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
~Benjamin Franklin

The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. To be your own man is hard business. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.
~Rudyard Kipling

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
~Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, Article 19 was discovered, and not invented, and that these frequencies and principles were always in existence long before man was aware of them. Therefore, no one owns them. They are there as free as sunlight, which is a higher frequency form of the same energy.
~Alan Weiner

Free counters!