Analog Sauce: The Audioromy M828-A

AKA: Tube amp part II

Audioromy M828A on the bench
Audioromy M828A on the bench

I have been fooling around with this amplifier for a month now and I have to say, it is rather fun.  There are a few hazards when purchasing Chinese HiFi (ChiFi) equipment.

The first thing to note; several places such as Ebay and Amazon list this as a single ended class A amp. That is not true, it is a double ended class AB amp.  I confirmed this by measuring across the two sections of the output transformer.

Second thing to note; this amp came wired with a fuse on the hot side of the AC mains and the power switch on the neutral.  Switched neutral (AKA earth, return or ground) wires are a hazard, so I rewired it, putting the switch after the fuse on the hot side after the fuse.  Another safety thing, the edge of the metal chassis was not de-burred.  I took a flat file to it and removed the burr, thus avoiding any future lacerations.

Finally; there is no manual provided with this unit.  There are a few sets of instructions on how to re-bias after tube replacement which are technically correct but not the best way to go about it. Those instructions direct the user to solder a low value resistor from cathode to ground then measure the voltage drop on that resistor to calculate plate current. While this is a valid way to deduce plate current, the power output tube has two tubes in one envelope and the cathodes are tied together. The plate current can be calculated for both sides, but there is nothing indicating that the two sides are balanced and one of the tubes can red plate. This was also noted in those instructions found on line.

That being said, I thought I could type up a set of directions that are more suited for this amplifier.  But first, read this dire warning about working with High Voltage:

This amplifier has lethal voltages present during operation. It is possible that lethal voltages can be stored in certain components for days after the amplifier has been turned off and disconnected. By removing the protective covers, those components will be exposed and you may come in contact with them if you are not careful.

If you are planning to service this amplifier, it is vital that you have basic electronics and electrical knowledge. This includes all applicable safety procedures for working on high voltage components.

If you do not have this knowledge, please bring this amplifier to a qualified electronics technician or repair shop for service.

I am not responsible for any injuries or damage suffered to yourself or others if you decide to undertake repairs of this equipment.

I acquired a few of these Ulyanovsk GU-29 tubes and decided to try them out.  The maximum plate dissipation for this tube is 40 watts with bulb temperature of 175°C and ambient temperature of 20°C.  I measured the bulb temperature at 142°C and the temperature in my living room ranges from 20ºC to 32ºC (68ºF to 90ºF).  I could, in theory, bias these tubes for a higher plate dissipation, if I wanted to.

Ulyanovsk GU29 tube, made in the USSR
Ulyanovsk GU29 tube, made in the USSR, circa May 1964

I asked my Russian friend what the assembly line person or factory manager might think if he or she knew that the tube made in their factory would end up in being used in a home audio amplifier owned by a guy in New York.  She said “They would have a stroke.”  Ulyanovsk had and still has a heavy military presence, thus they likely assumed that all their products would be used by the Soviet Navy or Army.

Being that this particular tube sat around in a warehouse for 55 years, it was slightly gassy.  When I first turned the amp on, there was a distinctive pink glow and a couple of small internal arcs.  It probably would have been a smart idea to light up the filaments for several hours before applying plate voltage.  Unfortunately, I had that idea after I’d already energized the amplifier.  In any case,  I increased the bias and reduced the plate current.  After a while, things settled down and I got to work re-biasing the amplifier.

To re-bias the amplifier after new tubes have been installed, some initial data needs to be gathered.  Basically, this procedure involves measuring the resistance of the plate circuit, then measuring the voltage at the output of the plate voltage supply and the voltage at each of the plate terminals on the power amp tube.  The plate voltage on this amplifier is +460 DC or so voltage above ground potential.  Obviously, this is a dangerous voltage and if you are not familiar with working on high voltages, do not attempt this procedure.  The best way to measure these test points is to use clip leads; turn the amp off, let the capacitors discharge, place the clip leads on the appropriate test points, turn the amp on, make the measurement, then turn the amp off, repeat as necessary.

After replacement of the power tubes (V-5 and V-6), the bias for those tubes should be checked and adjusted as follows:

A. To measure plate dissipation as set by the factory, perform the following steps:

1. With amp completely turned off and disconnected from the AC mains, remove the bottom cover. Ensure that the large power supply capacitors are discharged to ground. With an accurate ohm meter, measure from the exposed lead on L-1 (TP-1) on the power supply board to the input to the anode resistor (R-21 or R-22 in the schematic diagram (TP-2, TP-3, TP-4, TP-5)) for each tube (four measurements total). Make a note of those measurements. For reference, my amp measured between 163 to 165 ohms.

2. Reconnect the amp to the AC mains and turn on power (be sure to read the dire warning about high voltage above). With an accurate DVM, set to DC volts scale, carefully measure the voltage on the exposed lead of L-1 on the power supply board to ground, make a note of it. This is the B+ voltage for the amplifier. Carefully make another measurement between the input of the anode resistor (R-21 or R-22) and ground (four total measurements, likely to be the same), this is the plate voltage for the power tubes. Make a note of that as well.

3. Subtract the plate voltage from the B+ voltage. For my amp, this was 462 VDC 458 VDC = 4 volts. This can also be measured between TP-1 and TP2 through TP-5 See charts 1 and 2 below. This is the voltage drop. Using ohms law, calculate the plate current for each section of the amp:

Voltage drop ÷ resistance = plate current or 4.17 VDC ÷ 163.2 ohms = 0.0255 amps (25.5 ma) plate current.

Using ohms law, calculate the plate dissipation for ½ of the power tube:

Plate voltage × Plate current = Plate Dissipation or 458 V × 0.0255 amps = 11.7 watts.

Add both sides of the tube together for the total plate dissipation.

Chart 1: Left power tube, V-5

Test points Resistance Plate voltage (TP-2/3 to gnd) B+ (L1 or TP-1 to gnd) Voltage drop Plate current Dissipation
TP-1 to TP-2 163.2 ohms 458 VDC 462 VDC 4.17 VDC 25.5 ma 11.7 watts
TP-1 to TP-3 163.9 ohms 458 VDC 462 VDC 4.16 VDC 25.3 ma 11.6 watts

Total power dissipation for V-5 is 23.2 watts or 77% of maximum for the stock FU29 tube. That is slightly above the commonly recommended safe range of 70% of maximum, but it is tolerable.

Chart 2: Right power tube, V-6

Test points Resistance Plate voltage (TP-4/5 to gnd) B+ (L1 or TP-1 to gnd) Voltage drop Plate current Dissipation
TP-1 to TP-4 164.4 ohms 458 VDC 462 VDC 4.23 VDC 25.3 ma 11.6 watts
TP-1 to TP-5 164.8 ohms 458 VDC 462 VDC 4.14 VDC 25.1 ma 11.5 watts

Total power dissipation for V-6 is 23.1 watts or 77% of maximum for the stock tube.

Test points for tube bias adjustment
Test points for tube bias adjustment
Pin out, 829B tube
Pin out, 829B tube

B. When replacing the power tubes, it is recommended that they be replaced in kind in pairs.

Step 1: Increase the tube bias (measured on pin 2 or 6 of the power tube) to -25 VDC and check the plate voltage drop on both tubes. Increasing the bias will reduce the plate current and thus the plate dissipation.  This will be noted as a decrease in the voltage drop.  A good starting set point would be 50-60% of the normal factory plate current (Vd ÷ Plate R) setting. The voltage drop can be measured directly by connecting the positive lead to TP-1 and then measure TP-2 to TP-5 with the negative lead. Use clip leads, placing them on the test points with the amplifier turned off.  Be extremely careful; these test points are +460 VDC above ground when the amp is energized. Read dire voltage warning above.

Step 2: Turn off amp, discharge power supply capacitors, replace tubes.

Step 3: Allow the new tubes to burn in for approximately 3-5 hours with reduced plate dissipation, make sure that the amplifier is connected to a suitable load on the speaker output terminals.

Step 4: With the DVM connected to TP-1 and TP-2, slowly bring the bias down until the plate circuit voltage drop approaches the values for the old tube.  Repeat procedure for each plate circuit (TP-1 to TP-3, TP-1 to TP-4 and TP-1 to TP-5). Recalculate plate dissipation. Be sure not to exceed plate dissipation of the tube! It is best if the tube is biased to run at about 70-75% of the maximum plate dissipation.

Step 5: With the amp fully warmed up, turn out all lights and observe the plates of both tubes for any signs of red plating.

Step 6: Carefully measure the balance between the two plate outputs of each tube by placing the DVM leads on TP2 and TP3 for V5 and TP4 and TP5 for V6. Alternatively, the test leads can be placed directly on Pu-1 and Pu-2 of the power tube under test. Between these test point pairs, the DC voltages should be zero or close to it. Note; there will be some fluctuations in the hundredths or thousandths volt ranges. Very, very carefully, adjust the bias control pots until the voltmeter reads zero or as close as you can get to zero.

Step 7: Recheck the plate dissipation for both sides of the tube, make sure that they are closely matched and not exceeding the maximum plate dissipation for the power tube in use.

I discovered several things during this process; it is very easy to red plate one side of the tube while adjusting the bias controls.  Fortunately, I noticed this right away and was able to stop the red plating quickly.  The Ulyanovsk tubes seem none the worse for wear.  As Alex Ovechkin says “Russian machine never breaks.”

Next, the schematic diagram I posted previously is not correct for this version amplifier.  There are two bias voltage controls, one for each grid.  There is no balance control, the tubes are balanced by making very careful adjustments to one or the other of the bias controls.  Updated schematic diagram:

Audioromy M-828A schematic diagram
Audioromy M-828A schematic diagram

When the amplifier is properly biased and balanced, the distortion figures should be very low, less than 0.5 to 1% THD at full power.  It makes a big difference.

The point of all this is to 1) have fun, 2) perhaps learn something about tube (or valve) circuits and 3) listen to really clean, good sounding audio.

The Raytheon RL10 Limiting Amplifier

Update: Apparently this is quite interesting to a number of people.  I have rescanned the manual, properly compressed it and which you may find it here.

Found this manual at one of the older transmitter sites:

Raytheon RL10 limiting amplifier manual cover
Raytheon RL10 limiting amplifier manual cover

Entire manual is available for your reading pleasure here: Raytheon RL10 limiting amplifier

As this is an older design than either the Gates Sta level or the Collins 26U, it may not be as useful to tube audio enthusiasts.

Raytheon RL-10 Schematic diagram
Raytheon RL-10 Schematic diagram

The main issue with the Gates and Collins unit is the GE 6386 remote cutoff triode used, which were great tubes, but very difficult to come by these days.  This design calls for a 1612 or 6L7, which is a pentagrid amplifier.  Feedback is provided by the screen of the following stage, a 6SJ7GT.  Anyway, perhaps it will give somebody some idea on how to make a good tube compressor limiter.

The Raytheon RM-10 Monitor Amp

I found this manual from 1946 in the drawer at the WICC transmitter site, which is a sort of time capsule due to its inaccessibility. I figured I would bring it home and scan it, then return it to the file drawer out on the island.  Step one is done:

Raytheon RM-10 Monitor Amp
Raytheon RM-10 Monitor Amp

This is a cool little monitor amp, capable of driving line level or speaker outputs up to about 10 watts or so.  It could be used as a front or input stage for a larger audio amp.  By the way, 10 watts is a lot more than it seems, if using efficient speakers to convert that power into sound waves.  Specs show total harmonic distortion is between 0.6 to 2 percent depending on power and frequency.  Lower power output levels net less distortion.

Schematic is pretty simple, a pair of 6L6’s in push-pull for the output.   Inverse feedback into the previous stage via the output transformer.  Click on image for higher resolution.

Full manual and parts list is available here.

Now I just need to get the manual back out there.

Continental Shortwave Transmitters

I started my radio career working in HF radio, albeit somewhat different than broadcasting.   I enjoy the long distance aspect of HF communications and there is something about the high power shortwave (HF) rigs that interest me. This is a video of a Continental 418E HF transmitter. The carrier power is 100 KW capable of 100% modulation, when means peak output power is 400 KW. This particular model has a solid state modulator, which is in the cage where the guy is walking around. From the video, it would appear they had several blown fuses in the modulator section. The fuses protect the individual IGBTs in the modulator.

This is an older transmitter that is getting upgraded to a 418F. The heavy cable is the connection between the solid state modulator and the RF final section. Depending on modulations levels, it carries around 33 KV.

From the Continental Electronics website that details the SSM unit:

The modulator consists of 48 series connected modules which are switched on or off to provide the high voltage DC and the superimposed high level audio voltage. The switching is accomplished with Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). A low pass filter follows the series connected modules which removes the switching signals and allows the DC and audio signals to pass to the RF amplifier. Because each of the modules is either in full conduction with very low loss, or turned off, again with very low loss, the overall modulator efficiency is in excess of 97%.

A full description of the SSM is on the Continental Electronics SSM website. It is an interesting read, including the description of the 12 phase transformer setup.

Finally, a video of the VOA transmitter site in Greenville, NC.

This is part 4 of 5, if one wanted to, one could click through to Youtube and watch the rest of them. The VOA stuff is, as the transmitter engineer notes, 1950’s technology. No solid state modulators in these rigs. Those are some old transmitters, still in service and likely to remain that way until the VOA closes that site down, some point in the future.

Like their FM counterparts, Continental HF transmitters are the gold standard when it comes to high power tube transmitters. Sadly, they no longer make transmitters for Standard Broadcast (AM MW).