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Downgrading an AM radio station

WGHQ in Kingston, NY has been downgraded from a 5KW DA-1 to a 1KW non-DA system.  This was done because two of the three towers in the directional antenna array dated from 1960, were in very rough condition and needed to be replaced.  The remaining tower (furthest from the transmitter building) had been replaced in 1994, is in good condition and is being kept as the non-directional radiator.

Here are a few pictures:

WGHQ 3 tower directional antenna array, Port Ewen, NY

WGHQ 3 tower directional antenna array, Port Ewen, NY

More deferred maintenance

More deferred maintenance

RF and tower light feed disconnected from tower base

RF and tower light feed disconnected from tower base

Second tower base vegetation not as bad, tower disconnected

Second tower base vegetation not as bad, tower disconnected

WGHQ transmitter and original Collins phasing cabinet

WGHQ transmitter and original Collins phasing cabinet

First tower video (sorry, I appear to have no idea what I am doing with the camera):

Second tower video, this one is better:

Towers on the ground:

I made measurements on the third tower and constructed a temporary ATU with parts on hand to get the station back on the air. They are now running 1 KW day, 38 watts night, as per their CP. I will be going back up to finish the job once the brush has been removed from around the existing tower and the ATU building has been repaired.  The coverage with 1 KW is not bad, actually:

Predicted coverage map from FCC website

Predicted coverage map from FCC website

The translator is on its way.

Accidents, mistakes, mishaps and other tales

Lets get started:

Results of a deer vs automobile accident

Results of a deer vs automobile accident

It does not look like much, however, that is about $5,500.00 worth of damage. What you don’t see is the mashed oil cooler and radiator. This happened on my way from one place to another during the early morning hours. I was traveling at about 55 MPH when a deer bolted from the woods and entered the roadway from the right. I did not have time to break.

In a ditch

In a ditch

A momentary lapse of attention causes loss of $80.00. I think I was adjusting the defroster as I was driving down the road when suddenly, I felt the car tilt over to an alarming degree. You can see the tow truck getting ready to pull it out. Fortunately, there was no damage to the vehicle.

Troubles with the neighbor

Troubles with the neighbor

This is on the access road to one of our transmitter sites. The station has a legal right of way through this property, however, the neighbor seems to object. I spoke with him and showed him a copy of our deed, he has since changed plans.

One side of a balanced audio connection disconnected

One side of a balanced audio connection disconnected

This is the downside of using category cable to make audio connections. The wires are not as rugged as say Belden 8451. This was causing problems because it is at an AM studio/transmitter site.

Burned 30 amp three phase contactor

Burned 30 amp three phase contactor

Three phase, 30 amp, 240 volt contactor installed in a 480 volt system. Lasted a few years, anyway.

White face hornets nest

White face hornets nest

New tenants on one of our towers. This is a white faced (or bald faced) hornets nest. They are really paper wasps, but that difference aside, these beasts are nasty, aggressive and have a painful sting. Normally, I am a live and let live kind of person, but in this case, they gotta go.

Dummy load attached to plywood

Dummy load attached to plywood

This is at one of our AM clients site. Somebody, quite some time ago it seems, made this test load for a 1 KW AM transmitter. It is very nice, carbon ceramic resistors, 50 ohms and surprisingly little reactance. Then they attached it to this piece of plywood. As one can surmise, the load gets quite hot under full power, full modulation conditions. We remounted this in a cage type enclosure and bolted it to the cinder block wall.

Scala PR-950U cross polarized

Scala PR-950U cross polarized

The client at this station is complaining of intermittent STL drop outs and low signal strength at the receive end. Found this Scala PR-950U antenna mounted for vertical polarization, but the antenna element is horizontally mounted. We’ll call it “vorizontal.”

Ribbon cable from a Cummins 135 KW generator

Ribbon cable from a Cummins 135 KW generator

This was discovered during routine maintenance and thankfully not during a power outage. Mice got into the control box of a newish Cummins 135 KW generator and chewed through what looks like a data buss cable. The generator would not run and the cable and control board needed to be replaced.

Bulging capacitors

Bulging capacitors

There is more bulging capacitors removed from flat panels monitors.

And so on…

Drone footage of tower demolition

Watching a tower drop from a different perspective:

Looks like a World Tower Utility 80.

North Adams Tower Collapse

High winds seem to be the culprit in the collapse of two towers in North Adams. According to the Motorola system technicians, it happened at about 12:30 am Sunday morning, which is when all their link loss alarms started going off.  The larger, self supporting tower broke from it’s mounting plate and tipped over into the smaller guyed tower next to it. Effected are WUPE-FM and W226AW (WFCR New England Public Radio) as well as NEPR new station WNNI which has not officially signed on.

Cellular service for ATT, Verizon and Sprint/NEXTEL were all knocked off line as well internet services and E911 dispatch.  Those services are coming back on line, with temporary modular cell units en route. News report from WWLP channel 22, Springfield, MA:

Here are some pictures:

North Adams Cell Tower

North Adams Cell Tower

WUPE-FM antenna on the ground

WUPE-FM antenna on the ground

WUPE-FM antenna

WUPE-FM antenna

WUPE-FM STL dish

WUPE-FM STL dish

Base of WUPE-FM (formerly WMNB) tower

Base of WUPE-FM (formerly WMNB) tower

WNNI antenna

WNNI antenna

WUPE-FM WNNI and W266AW transmitter building

WUPE-FM, WNNI, and W266AW transmitter building

North Adams Cell Tower

North Adams Cell Tower

North Adams Cell Tower

North Adams Cell Tower

North Adams Cell Tower

North Adams Cell Tower

North Adams Cell Tower

North Adams Cell Tower

Tower base mounting plate, apparent failure point

Tower base mounting plate, apparent failure point

Tower base mounting plate

Tower base mounting plate

Tower Base Mounting Plate

Tower Base Mounting Plate

For pictures of the towers during happier times, refer to this post: Filtering for co-located FM transmitters.

Restoration work is underway with WUPE-FM expected to return to air at low power by Monday afternoon.

Update:

WUPE-FM was returned to air at low power by about 1pm on Monday 3/31.  We took an unused Shively 6812 antenna that was tuned to 94.1 MHz and retuned it to 100.1 by cutting 1/4 inch pieces from the end of the elements until it was on frequency.  It took a bit of doing, but with a network analyzer, we were able to get it to 1.2:1 SWR with symmetrical sidebands.  Running 600 watts, it covers the city of license and then some.

WUPE-FM temporary antenna

WUPE-FM temporary antenna, Shively 6812

The STL antenna is a survey antenna mounted on the side of the building. In this configuration, with the leaves off of the trees, we are getting about 250 uV signal, which is pretty good.

WUPE-FM temporary STL antenna

WUPE-FM temporary STL antenna

The site is now crawling with insurance investigators, cell site technicians, North Adams fire department, Berkshire County Sheriff’s officers, tower workers, etc.  After we finished this work, we cleared out to make more room for everybody else.  Estimated restore time for W266AW is Wednesday 4/2.

Planning for the replacement tower is already in progress, I’d expect it to happen fairly quickly. The next step for the broadcasters is to put up a 70 foot utility pole and get a full powered antenna for WUPE. This should happen in the next two weeks or so. That will serve as the temporary facility until the new tower is constructed.

The Kintronic Isocoupler

Had a problem with this Kintronic FMC-0.1 isocoupler the other morning.

Kintronic FMC-1.0 STL ioscoupler

Kintronic FMC-1.0 STL isocoupler

After an overnight drenching heavy rain and very high wind, the STL transmitter associated with this unit was having high VSWR faults.  This isocoupler crosses a base insulator of an AM 50 KW directional antenna.  This particular tower has negative impedance, which is to say, it sucks power out of the pattern and feeds it back to the phasor. An interesting discussion for another time, perhaps.

Using a dummy load, we isolated the problem to the isocoupler by first connecting the load to the output on top of the unit (problem still exists) then to the transmission line prior the unit (problem went away).  Of course, the AM station had to be taken off the air to do this work.

Once the issue was confirmed as the isocoupler, I opened the unit up and found that water had entered and pooled in the top of the bottom half of the isolation transformer.

Kintronic isocoupler transformer

Kintronic isocoupler transformer

The isolation transformer consists of two loops to ground capacitively coupled through air dielectric. The issue is with the opening around the top of the unit, under the lip of metal lid. Apparently, this allowed water in.

Kintronic isocoupler isolation transformer

Kintronic isocoupler isolation transformer

It is difficult to tell with the lighting in this photograph, however, the bottom part of this isolation transformer has water pooled around the center insulator.  Using a rag, I cleaned out the water and dirt from the center insulator.  After reconnecting the antenna and transmitter transmission line, a quick check revealed the problem was much better, but still not completely gone.  I suspect water seeped further down into the bottom half of this unit.  The repair work was good enough, however, to return both stations to the air.

Glad to get that bit of work done while it was still relatively warm out.

Free climbing in Russia

Tower climbing in Russia. Caution is advised if you are fearful of heights or suffer from vertigo. Last time I posted something like this, there were all sorts of comments about OHSA violations and the like.

Ain’t no OHSA in Russia, son.

h/t: Broadcast Engineering Facebook Group

Tower take down video

Since the inception of youtube, I’ve watched hundreds of these tower collapse videos. I don’t know why, it interests me. This video is of the Coast Guard LORAN C tower in Port Clarence, Alaska. For what it’s worth, Port Clarence looks like a forlorn place, I am inclined to think my duty on Guam was rather nice in comparison.

This was filmed from six separate camera locations, including one at the base. It demonstrates how most towers fall within 1/3 of their constructed height. In this demolition, all three guy points are cut at the same time, removing the equalizing forces simultaneously. This would be the same situation as a catastrophic failure of a load bearing tower member.

The best parts of this video are the camera view of the tower base, around 1:04-1:19 and the side view where the camera almost gets hit by a tower section, 2:02-2:13.

I love physics.

Towers in the fog/repeating geometric shapes

For no other reason than they were there, I took a few shots under a couple of 300 foot self supporting towers.

300 foot self supporting communications tower in fog

300 foot self supporting communications tower in fog

This tower has a UHF slot antenna on the top of it fed with 6 inch hard line.

280 foot self supporting tower

280 foot self supporting tower

Tower next to the first one. Both can be found on North Mt. Beacon, NY, about 1,800 feet AMSL.

So, you call this work?

A trip to the WSPK transmitter site on a pleasant day, or, one could say, another day at the “office.”  Tower painting season is here, I’ll post some more about that later.  This is a nice set of pictures from the top of Mt. Beacon, in Beacon, NY.

Hudson Valley looking north from Mt. Beacon

Hudson Valley looking north from Mt. Beacon

South Mount  Beacon with the old fire tower:

Mount Beacon looking south at the old fire tower

Mount Beacon looking south at the old fire tower

Tower farm; two TV stations, Media Flow, one radio station, three translators, several cell carriers, one paging company, some government two way gear, and a few microwave relays.  The 320 foot guyed tower in the center holds the main (top) and backup (bottom) antennas for WSPK:

Mount Beacon Tower Farm

Mount Beacon Tower Farm

Tower climbers ascending a 320 foot tower.  This picture (and all the others as well) was taken with my HTC smartphone camera, proving the old adage, sometimes it is better to be lucky than good:

Tower workers on 320 foot guyed tower

Tower workers on 320 foot guyed tower

View from the ATC site at the very top of North Mount Beacon of the tower workers painting the top of the tower:

Tower workers painting torque arms on 320 foot guyed tower

Tower workers painting torque arms on 320 foot guyed tower

Another view from the ground:

Tower workers on Mt Beacon tower

Tower workers on Mt Beacon tower

All in all, not a bad day.

WICC WEBE damaged tower removal

Damaged in last year’s F1 tornado, this thirty foot Rohn 25-G tower needed to be removed from the roof. It actually went faster than I though it would, the worst part being moving the 4 foot tower sections down to the salvage truck via elevator. Naturally, the day we choose to do this is the same day that one of the two elevators servicing the seventh floor is out of order.

Damaged Rohn 25G STL tower on roof of studio

Damaged Rohn 25G STL tower on roof of studio

This was the same tornado that picked up a twenty ton roof top air conditioner and deposited it in the parking lot.  Luck would have it that no one was killed or injured.

Rohn 25G buckled tower section

Rohn 25G buckled tower section

Using a circular saw with a metal blade, a sawsall and a hand grinder, the tower was cut up into four foot sections.   The sections, brackets and tower base were taken to the scrap yard and disposed of.

Tower and transmission lines

Tower and transmission lines ready to be removed from roof

There were several lengths of unused 7/8 inch foam coax, broken antennas, RG-59- RG-58, RG-6, rotor cable, etc that we cleaned off of the roof and tower.

The after picture

The after picture

A good little project to have completed.

The studio build out for WEBE is also nearly done.  August will mark one year of our company’s involvement at WICC/WEBE.  I was looking around today and comparing the difference between when we started to now.  Many things have been done.

Axiom


A pessimist sees the glass as half empty. An optimist sees the glass as half full. The engineer sees the glass as twice the size it needs to be.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
~1st amendment to the United States Constitution

Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
~Benjamin Franklin

The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. To be your own man is hard business. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.
~Rudyard Kipling

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
~Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, Article 19

...radio was discovered, and not invented, and that these frequencies and principles were always in existence long before man was aware of them. Therefore, no one owns them. They are there as free as sunlight, which is a higher frequency form of the same energy.
~Alan Weiner

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