The Energy Onix Pulsar transmitter

Engineering Radio: The Oh Dear God Edition.

I have been tasked with fixing one of these glorious contraptions. Aside from the usual Energy Onix quirks; design changes not reflected in the schematic diagram and a company that no longer exists, it seems to fairly simply machine. Unfortunately, it has spent its life in less than ideal operating conditions.

Energy Onix Pulsar 1000 in the wild. Excuse the potato quality photo
Energy Onix Pulsar 1000 in the wild. Excuse the potato quality photo

Upon arrival, it was dead in the water.  Found copious mouse droppings, dirt and other detritus within and without of the transmitter.  Repaired the broken start/stop switches, fixed the RF drive detector, replaced the power supply capacitors and now at least the unit runs.  The problem now is the power control is unstable.  The unit comes up at full power when it first switched on, then it drops back to 40 watts, then after it warms up more goes to about 400 watts and the audio sounds distorted.  This all points towards some type of thermal issue with one of the power control op amps or other composite device.

After studying the not always accurate schematic diagrams, the source of the problem seems to be carrier level control circuit.  This is based around a Fairchild RC4200AN (U10 on the Audio/PDM driver board) which is an analog multiplier chip.   That chip sets the level of the PDM audio output which is fed into the PDM integrator circuit.  Of course, that chip is no longer manufactured.  I can order one from China on eBay and perhaps that will work out okay.  This all brings to mind the life cycle of solid state components.  One problem with the new technology; most solid state components have a short production life, especially things like multiplier chips.  Transmitters are generally expected to last 15-20 years in primary service.  Thus, transmitter manufactures need to use chips that will not become obsolete (good luck with that), or purchase and maintain a large stock of spare parts.

In the mean time, the chip is on its way from China.  Truth be told, this fellow would be better off with a new transmitter.

Decommissioning transmitters

I was at a transmitter site a few days ago scrapping a Continental 814-R1 transmitter and started thinking (always a dangerous thing) about how many of these units I have decommissioned over the years.  It turns out, quite a few:

Make/Model Year new* Year removed Station Disposition
GE BT25A 1948 1994 WPTR Donated/scrapped
Gates BC5P 1960 2004 WWLO Donated
Harris MW5A 1982 2000 WLNA Scrapped
Gates BC1T 1961 2001 WLNA Donated
Harris FM20H3 1972 2001 WYJB Scrapped
RCA BT1AR 1960 2001 WROW Donated
Harris BC1G 1972 2001 WDFL Abandoned
Harris FM20H3 1971 2005 WHUD Scrapped
BE FM30A 1988 2005 WHUD Cannibalized
Harris FM5G 1972 2008 WSPK Scrapped
Mc Martin BF3.5K 1976 2011 WCTW Scrapped
RCA BTF-10ES 1978 2011 WRKI Scrapped
Gates BC1T 1964 2011 WINE Scrapped
Continental 315F-R1 1985 2013 WVMT Donated
Collins 813F 1975 2014 WKXZ Scrapped
RCA BTA1AR 1965 2014 WCHN Scrapped
Collins 813F2 1978 2015 WKXZ Scrapped
Collins 830D-1A 1968 2014 WKXZ Scrapped
Harris FM20H3 1972 2013 WYJB Scrapped
Harris BC5HA 1973 2013 WROW Scrapped
Harris FM10H 1971 2013 WMHT-FM Scrapped
Harris FM2.5H3 1973 2015 WEXT Scrapped
Mc Martin BF3.5K 1972 2014 WSRK Scrapped
CCA FM5000G 1980 2015 WTBD Scrapped
RCA BTF1E 1972 2016 WZOZ Scrapped
QEI 695T3.5 1996 2015 WBPM Scrapped
QEI 695T5 1996 2015 WBPM Scrapped
Harris HT3.5 1997 2015 WUPE-FM Scrapped
Harris Z5CD 1997 2015 WXPK Cannibalized
Energy Onix SSA1000 2000 2015 WDHI Cannibalized
Harris MW1 1982 2016 WPUT Abandoned
Mc Martin BF1K 1982 2016 WSUL Scrapped
Mc Martin BF3.5K 1982 2016 WSUL Scrapped
Continental 814R1 1980 2016 WDBY Scrapped
Broadcast Electronics FM35A 1986 2017 WEBE Cannibalized
CCA FM-1000D8 1973 2018 WDLA Scrapped
Collins 828E 1978 2018 WSYB Scrapped
Gates BC-1H 1971 2018 WHUC Scrapped
Gates BC-1J 1954 2019 WBEC Scrapped
Gates BC250GY 1969 2019 WSBS Scrapped

*In some cases the “Year New” is a guess based on when the station went on the air.  Before you write me and say “But model XYZ transmitter wasn’t made until 19XX, I did not look at every name plate and write all the information down as I did this.

Like everything else, there is a process to this.

RCA BTA-10U AM transmitter
RCA BTA-10U AM transmitter

First of all, if the transmitter was made before 1978, the possibility of PCB capacitors and transformers exists. In the case of the GE BT25A, massive amounts of PCBs needed to be disposed of properly. According to current federal laws, ownership of PCBs and PCB contaminated items cannot be transferred. Thus, the transformer casings were cleaned out and taken to Buffalo to be buried in a PCB certified landfill.   Otherwise, most other transmitters, such as the RCA BTA-10, may have a few PCB capacitors in them and perhaps the modulation transformer.  Those items can be disposed of by calling an authorized environmental disposal company like Clean Harbors.

The rest of the transmitter is stripped of any useful parts.  Things like vacuum variable capacitors, rectifier stacks, blower motors (if they are in good condition), HV power supply contactors, unique tuning parts, whole control and metering boards, tube sockets, etc.

The remaining carcase is then disassembled and hauled off.  I got a guy that will do this for relatively little money.  He takes the transmitter back to his warehouse and cuts it up, sorts all of the various metals out, then takes it to the scrap yard.  This includes things like cutting all of the windings off of transformers and power supply chokes, sorting out the brass and copper tuning parts, etc.

Village seeks repayment from Energy Onix

This saddens me a little bit.  Apparently, the Village of Valatie, NY is seeking repayment of a $500K loan from Transmitter Manufacturer Energy Onix.  Since the passing of Bernie Wise, the company has basically folded.

The village may foreclose on the building if necessary, said Mayor Diane Argyle.

Located at 1306 River St., Energy-Onix was founded in 1987 by broadcast pioneer Bernard Wise, who is known for bringing the “grounded grid” to radio broadcasting. The company designed, manufactured and sold radio transmitters and tubes.

More from the Columbia-Greene Register Star.

Sadly, there goes support for many Energy Onix and CCA transmitter still in the field.  I know of several of those old CCA transmitters that are still cranking away, 40 or more years after they rolled out of the factory in Gloucester, NJ.   I have tried, several times, to call Energy Onix since Bernie passed last year and the phone goes unanswered.  I wonder if we could pick up the the field support and service for these units.  I wonder if there are any spare parts left at the old factory building?