March 2019
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ATT Long Lines Site, Rock City NY

Another one of those former ATT Long Lines sites which has been re-purposed. This site was known as Rock City and as the name suggests, it is a fairly remote location. These locations were chosen by ATT to facilitate microwave relay between cities.  Some of the more remote rural locations are so far off the beaten path that they do not make good wireless carrier sites today.  Such is the case here, there simply are not enough people around to turn this into a profitable cell site.

Former ATT long lines site, Rock City NY

Former ATT long lines site, Rock City, NY

This site is useful in other ways, the local township purchased it and has put it to use for E911 dispatch and other uses such as WKZE translator W290BZ.

Former ATT long lines Western Electric Tower, Rock City NY

Former ATT long lines Western Electric Tower, Rock City, NY

The tower is less than 200 feet tall, therefore it is no longer painted or lit. These old Western Electric towers were really built. Under that peeling paint, the galvanizing is still in near perfect condition. The tower dates from 1968.

Former ATT tower, Rock CIty NY

Former ATT tower, Rock City, NY

The Western Electric KS-15676 microwave antennas and waveguide have been removed. The top platform is quite large, one could build a house up there. The W290BZ antenna is the cross polarized LPA attached to the center pole which is barely visible.

Former ATT long lines site, Rock City NY.  The big empty.

Former ATT long lines site, Rock City, NY. The big empty.

This room held the switch gear and TD-3 microwave radios.

Former ATT site, Rock City NY 100 KW generator

Former ATT site, Rock City, NY 100 KW generator

The original General Motors 100 KW diesel generator. The fuel tank was removed before the site was transferred from ATT to the new owners.  If reconnected to a fuel supply and the block heater turned on, I’d bet this unit would start and run.

ATT Rock City NY generator, Detroit Diesel straight six engine

ATT Rock City, NY generator Detroit Diesel straight six engine

ATT Rock City NY fuel tank cathodic projection unit.

ATT Rock City, NY fuel tank cathodic projection unit.

The tank had a Cathodic protection unit installed, which ran a small DC current through the tank to keep it from rusting.

The original visitors log book is still there, showing every ATT person who visited the site from 1968 until it was decommissioned in 1994.  This site was unmanned and remotely monitored and controlled from somewhere else.  Maintenance personal showed up at regular intervals or to fix specific problems.

Like many of its rural counterparts, this site sits mostly empty since the microwave equipment was removed in the early 1990’s.  This one seems to be well taken care of, others are in terrible shape.

The Shukhov Tower

A very interesting bit of broadcasting history in Moscow may disappear forever.  Designed and built by Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov, the Shukhov Tower was completed in 1922.  Since that time it has served as a AM broadcasting and later and FM broadcasting tower.  In the picture, one can see what looks like a massive FM panel antenna at the top.  According to this website:, the tower is in very poor shape and is slated to be demolished.

The tower itself is described as 160 Meters (525 feet) tall, hyperboloid steel lattice structure. The design is unique in that it is very strong, yet uses approximately 60-70 percent less steel than a comparable four legged structure like the Eiffel tower.  An amazing feat of engineering for its day, when everything was calculated and drawn by hand.

Shukhov Tower, Moscow, FSR

Shukhov Tower, Moscow, FSR.

The antenna is a little hard to discern, however, it looks like a horizontally polarized six or eight around 4 bay FM antenna. Could also be low band VHF TV.

Shukhov Tower antenna

Shukhov Tower antenna. Courtesy Wikipedia

Unfortunately, time is running out and little or nothing is being done to protect the steel structure from the elements. The last paint job was more than twenty years ago. The land it currently occupies has some value, and there is talk of putting up a high rise development in its place.

Article from the New York Times; An engineering landmark faces demolition in Moscow.

There are lots of videos on youtube and pictures from the wikipedia article.  It is an interesting bit of history, if it can be saved it will be a very close run thing.

WMHT’s former analog transmitter

During the digital TV conversion in the US, all broadcast television stations installed new transmitting equipment and antennas.  Most stations ended up on a different frequency than their original analog channel.  In Albany, New York, all of the TV stations moved to a common transmitter site and installed their antennas on a single tower.


Albany DTV tower, home of WRGB, WTEN, WNYT, WXXA, WMHT, and WCWN

For more on the Albany DTV site, check out the NECRAT page:

So, what happened to the old Analog TV sites in Albany?

For the most part, after the analog turn off on June 12, 2009, the sites have sat empty.  Such is the case with the former WMHT site.

Sign outside of former WMHT transmitter building

Sign outside of former WMHT transmitter building

This old sign about sums up the end of analog television.

Former WMHT Comark analog transmitter

Former WMHT Comark analog transmitter

Former WMHT analog transmitter wide shot

Former WMHT analog transmitter wide shot

Former WMHT operator position

Former WMHT operator position

The former transmitter operator desk. Maintenance log is still open. From the looks of things, they opened the circuit breakers and walked away. Everything remains intact from the antenna to the klystrons and exciters. It does appear that the coolant has been drained from the system. Other than that, it seems like the whole thing could be restarted with minimal effort.

Former WMHT Onan DFN 350 backup generator

Former WMHT Onan DFN 350 backup generator

There were two Onan DFN 350 backup generators. With a TV transmitters, it is vitally important to run the cooling system after shutdown. The idea here is that both generators in parallel could run the whole station, if one generator failed, then the cooling system would still run and cool the klystrons.

Former WMHT site kitchen

Former WMHT site kitchen

Former WMHT tower, wave guide and WVCR antenna

Former WMHT tower, wave guide and WVCR antenna

The former WMHT tower, which currently holds the WVCR-FM, WXL-34 (NOAA weather radio), and W44CT-D (Three Angles Broadcasting) Low power TV transmitter.

Current site occupants; WVCR-FM and W44CT-D

Current site occupants; WVCR-FM and W44CT-D

These equipment racks and the NOAA weather radio transmitter in the other room are the only active equipment at this site.

WMHT-TV Chanel 17 (488-494 MHz) signed on 1962 from this site.  The Comark transmitter was installed in 1984.  The station’s analog ERP was 2000 KW visual, 200 KW aural.

It is an interesting site.

Old ATT promotional video

I found this old ATT promotional video from 1967.  It mainly concerns the PSTN wired network reliability.

It’s a mildly hoaky propaganda piece, but we often forget how our modern communications infrastructure is very young.  If ATT seems proud of their system, they had a right to be.  Prior to electronic communications, you wrote a letter and hoped that it arrived.

There is also this video: What is the Bell System.

If you have the time, there are many interesting archive videos in the ATT Tech Channel.  Be careful, one can spend a lot of time watching these videos!

GE BT-25 Mystery transmitter site

Update: Thank you, Jim.  The mystery site is KFIG (formerly KFRE) in Fresno, CA.  This is what the transmitter building looks like from the outside today:

KFIG transmitter, circa 2011

KFIG transmitter, circa 2011

In the previously mentioned the rescued file cabinet and along with the WFLY transmitter site construction information, I also found these interesting photographs:

Mystery AM transmitter site

Mystery AM transmitter site, plate 9296

I do not know what transmitter site this is. From the photo, it has a two tower (guyed) directional antenna. It looks to me to be somewhere out west. The transmitter is a General Electric BTA-25 or BT-25, same as the former WPTR and WCKY transmitter. I know this back hallway well:

Mystery AM transmitter site, back hallway of GE BT-25.  Plate 9300

Mystery AM transmitter site, back hallway of GE BT-25. Plate 9300

This is the transformer vault:

Mystery AM transmitter site, transformer vault.  Plate 9297

Mystery AM transmitter site, transformer vault. Plate 9297

Modulation transformer and three pot plate transformer:

BT-25 modulation transformer.  Plate 9299

Mystery AM transmitter site, GE BT-25 modulation transformer. Plate 9299

I would say that these may be promotional photos, because of the spotlessly clean installation and the plate numbers on each print.  Unfortunately, there are no pictures of the front of the transmitter, including the operator console.

Does anybody know where this is?

Horby and Solvesborgs transmitter site

This is a video of Radio Sweden’s shortwave and medium wave transmitter sites:

Håkan Widenstedt at Hörby and Sölvesborgs Transmitter sites from HamSphere on Vimeo.

This was filmed in 2006. In 2010, Radio Sweden ceased broadcasting on medium and shortwave, thus I believe these sites have Horby (HF) has been dismantled.  Medium wave installation Solvesborg is visible starting at 15:30. Two tower directional array 180 degree towers with 600 KW carrier power. Quite impressive.

There is an effort to at save the Solvesborg site, perhaps as a museum.

Transmitters were in Skane, Sweden:

View Larger Map

h/t Shortwave Central

Wikipedia Articles

Wikipedia-logo-v2Type the call letters for almost any radio or television station in the country into a search engine, and the second or third result will be a Wikipedia article.

Try it.

This is both an opportunity and burden.  Since the Wikipedia articles place so well in most search engine results, it would be a benefit to radio stations to keep an eye on them; keep them up to date, make sure that no one vandalizes them and fix it when they do.  Most importantly, keep the station website link and streaming link information up to date.  That is the burden but it is relatively small.

The opportunity comes from the ability to document the history of individual radio stations. In the grand scale, the history of any individual radio station is like a grain of sand on the beach. It is only pertinent to those who care.  But then there are those who do care and for some of us, reading a well written, well sourced article about some station we are familiar with is interesting.  To be sure, there are many crappy radio station articles on Wikipedia.   Some of them read like advertisements, clearly written from non-neutral party.  Others do not have sections, have poor grammar, improper or no source citations, etc.  Those poor articles should be fixed.

In my time as a broadcast engineer, I have found radio station to be like ships; they all have a certain personality.  It is difficult to explain how an inanimate collection of equipment and buildings can have personality, but they do.  Of course, with time, format and ownership changes those personalities change.  Documenting operating histories, formats, unique occurrences, famous past personalities, incidents, accidents, and technical discoveries in one place takes a little bit of time.  Having that information available for fellow radio people to read about is valuable service.  The one thing that I notice about most radio station Wikipedia articles; there are no pictures.  There should be more pictures.

Voice of Russia to cut shortwave

Another government shortwave broadcaster calls it quits.  The Voice of Russia (Голос России, Golos Rossii) will cut its shortwave service as of January 1st, 2014. Originally known as Radio Moscow, it has been on the air continuously since 1922. It will be sad to see yet another shortwave station pull the plug.

Radio Moscow stamp, courtesy of Wikimedia

Radio Moscow stamp, courtesy of Wikimedia

I can remember Radio Moscow being one the first shortwave stations I tuned across on my Uncle’s Zenith Transoceanic shortwave radio.  It was fascinating to me to hear the news from the far away and all too scary Soviet Union.  After a short bit of interval music and a series of beeps counting down to the top of the hour, a man with a deep, sonorous voice came on and said “Zis is Moscow…” It was very dramatic.

The economics of HF broadcasting are daunting to say the least.  Minimum power levels in the US are 50,000 watts into a highly directional, high gain antenna.  Most stations use greater than 50 KW transmitters, which will very quickly use gobs of electricity, becoming an expensive operation.  Other expense include maintenance on transmitters, buildings, land and antennas.  With little or no opportunity to commercialize, it becomes difficult to justify a shortwave operation.  Sadly, those are the state of affairs in HF broadcasting today.

Troposcatter communication system

I found this interesting article on the inter-tubes the other day and thought that I would share.  It is about a dis-used site from the Soviet era Troposcatter communication system called “SEVER.” There are many more pictures of equipment including MUX, transmitters, antennas, buildings etc, at that link.

Soviet SEVER troposcatter communications antenna

Soviet SEVER troposcatter communications antenna, courtesy

Like many of it’s counterparts in the US, this system has quite a bit of information available, including an interesting blog and associated web site which has lots of interesting information.  Some of it is in Russian, which mine is a little bit rusty, but here is what I could find out:

This is site 6/60, call sign Poloska and is located in Amderma, Nenets Autonomous okrug. That is way up north along the Barents Sea.  This site was in use from about 1965 until 2001, when it was closed down.  It communicated with site 5/60, which was 264 km away.

Amderma map with SEVER 6/60 location

Amderma map with SEVER 6/60 location, courtesy of

Troposcatter was used widely before satellites came into availability.  It used decimeter wavelengths (approximately 2 GHz) and lots of power with very high gain antennas. Basically the earth and the troposphere were used as reflectors, creating a type of duct.  It is noted the the SEVER and the GOREEZONT (HORIZONT) systems used both space and frequency diversity as a part of their system.  Frequency diversity means that there were as many as five identical signals transmitted on different frequencies at the same time.  Space diversity means that two or more transmit and receive antennas were used, as can be seen in the picture.  This site was run by the military, but would have likely carried civilian communications as well.

SEVER troposcatter communication system

SEVER troposcatter communication system

Basically it was a way to maintain communications across vast distances when wired or microwave systems were not practical or possible. The US used such systems on the DEW line and across the Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and Okinawa.  I remember the big Troposcatter dishes up on the hill behind the Navy housing area above Agana.

US Pacific Troposcatter communications system

US Pacific Troposcatter communications system, courtesy of Wikipedia

These systems were massive and expensive to build, operate and maintain.  From the looks of the pictures, site 6/60 generated all of it’s electricity with diesel generator sets. Fiber optic cable is an improvement of several orders of magnitude over this technology.

It is always interesting to see how things used to be done and give thanks to those that went along before us.  Last night I was grumbling about the network latency when watching a youtube video.  It was terrible, but in retrospect, not really that bad.

The Raytheon RL10 Limiting Amplifier

Update: Apparently this is quite interesting to a number of people.  I have rescanned the manual, properly compressed it and which you may find it here.

Found this manual at one of the older transmitter sites:

Raytheon RL10 limiting amplifier manual cover

Raytheon RL10 limiting amplifier manual cover

Entire manual is available for your reading pleasure here: Raytheon RL10 limiting amplifier

As this is an older design than either the Gates Sta level or the Collins 26U, it may not be as useful to tube audio enthusiasts.

Raytheon RL-10 Schematic diagram

Raytheon RL-10 Schematic diagram

The main issue with the Gates and Collins unit is the GE 6386 remote cutoff triode used, which were great tubes, but very difficult to come by these days.  This design calls for a 1612 or 6L7, which is a pentagrid amplifier.  Feedback is provided by the screen of the following stage, a 6SJ7GT.  Anyway, perhaps it will give somebody some idea on how to make a good tube compressor limiter.


A pessimist sees the glass as half empty. An optimist sees the glass as half full. The engineer sees the glass as twice the size it needs to be.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
~1st amendment to the United States Constitution

Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
~Benjamin Franklin

The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. To be your own man is hard business. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.
~Rudyard Kipling

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
~Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, Article 19 was discovered, and not invented, and that these frequencies and principles were always in existence long before man was aware of them. Therefore, no one owns them. They are there as free as sunlight, which is a higher frequency form of the same energy.
~Alan Weiner

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