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Book Review: Fighting for Air

fighting for airI just finished reading Fighting for Air by Eric Klinenberg.  It is a good book and a great discription of what has happened to radio since the major consolidations occured in 1999 and 2000.  Depressing.  Just damn depressing is what it is.

The book chronicles the evolution of the Prophet System and how that system was used to replace entire radio station air staffs.  It discusses the various failures that radio has produced as a result of automated programming, the complete lack of originality, public safety issues and how major media companies have stripped the heart and soul out of radio.

Something that the book points out that I never really considered, every one of these unoriginal canned music stations diminishes all radio by some increment.  For those that think the Clear Channels, Cumulus and Citadels are only harming themselves, think again.  People who get fed up with radio and buy an I-pod are excluding all radio stations from then on.  That is another degree of audience lost to a competing medium.

Having worked for one of the smaller group owners since 1999, one that rarely if ever appears on anyone’s radar, I can say I have seen some minor shades of what has happened with Clear Channel in the company I work for.  I think everyone who works in radio has seen some of this in one form or another no matter who they work for.

Radio has never been the most stable of employers.  Even in the early days, people moved in and out of radio stations, sometimes taking a job with the competitor across town and sometimes moving across country.  It was understood that sometimes changes needed to be made, sometimes people had to be let go.  It was a part of the landscape.  The difference is in the post consolidation radio environment, people are leaving radio altogether, replaced by a mindless computer programmed from afar.

During my time as a radio engineer, I have installed a few of these computer automation systems.  I think the first one was in 1993 on an AM station doing all news.  We used it for the overnight hours, replacing some minimum wage board operators.  The general manager was shocked and a little bit in awe of how well the system worked.

This trend continued in 1994, when I installed a BE Audiovault system at an AM/FM combo.  There again, the system replaced an overnight board operator on the AM station.  Later, the FM station did a sort of mini-mation where the overnight news guy checked on it every 45-50 minutes.  Those stations are now completely voice tracked and or satellite syndicated.

Through the 90’s, I installed first generation computer based automation systems mostly on AM stations.  Things like Digilink, DCS, ENCO, etc.

In other markets, an automation system was used to resurrect a couple of FM stations, starting out voice tracked, then adding live bodies to fill in day parts, usually having the 6 pm to 6 am time slot voice tracked.  Having three day parts live is better than none I suppose.

The AM stations in my market cluster now are running some awful syndicated satellite news/talk programming.  Why are these stations even on the air?  They should be sold to someone who will operate them locally, or turn their licenses in.

For whatever roll I have played in ruining radio, I am sorry for it.

It is a good book, I recommend anybody that works in the radio business read it.

T-1 outage

One of our stations relies on a T-1 (DS-1) to relay audio from the studio to the transmitter site (STL).  This station started as a piece of paper, no format, no staff, no real estate, no studio equipment.  There was a transmitter and an antenna installed on a leased tower site.

That being said, corners were forcibly cut.  Instead of installing a microwave STL system, a T-1 was ordered because we had a T-1 multiplexor.  Fast forward several years… The station is now successful, making a decent amount of money and having a popular format.

The station has two T-1 circuits on different cables with an automatic switcher.   Yesterday afternoon, the inevitable happened, both T-1s went out, along with most of the other TELCO circuits in the surrounding area.  A construction crew cut two 3600 pair cables a mile down the road.  The TELCO is racing to restore the service to all of the tenants on that tower by rigging a temporary aerial cable.

TELCO trucks, courtesy of <a href=Now the mad scramble ensues with conflicting requirements from the wacky program director.  Screw it, I grabbed one of the AudioVault express machines and took it to the transmitter site.  They are back on the air with a radio station in a box playing music until the T-1 gets fixed.

This site has had numerous problems since we have owned it.  In the 5 years since we launched the format, there have been six T-1 outages longer than 24 hours.  For back up, we have tried an ISDN line, a 3G wireless card in a computer, and a second T-1 circuit.  None of these have proved reliable as most circuit outages involved a cable cut, and multiple circuits were effected.

The real solution is a microwave STL, either a conventional 950 mHz system, or a 2.4 or 5.8 gHz last mile system.  Either would work better than what we have now.  Station ownership, they don’t want to hear it.

Update: This took until Friday, September 4th to repair, for a total outage of 9 days, 2 hours and 26 minutes.  During that time, the station remained on the air with the AudioVault server at the transmitter site and the program director updating it twice per day with voice tracks and commercials.

Lightning strikes

For about 4 years, I lived in a house next to a four hundred foot radio tower.  Although I never actually saw lightning strike the tower, I heard it several times.  Like everything else, after a while, you get used to it.

This is a video of lightning hitting the WSIX STL tower in Nashville, TN. The camera work is a little unsteady, the strike occurs around the 1:36 mark:

Yep, that is what it is like.

Local Community Radio Act (HR 1147/S 592)

I sent off a letter to my Senators and Congressman this morning regarding HR 1147/S 592 AKA Local Community Radio Act.  Basically I am against this.  Not that I don’t appreciate what it is trying to accomplish.  I believe the technical degradation of the FM band is a higher concern.  After all, if we turn the FM band into what the AM band has become, nobody will listen to radio.

Radio is too important to ruin.  Here is what I wrote:

I strongly urge you NOT to support the bipartisan Local Community Radio Act (HR 1147/ S. 592) sponsored by Reps. Mike Doyle and Lee Terry and Sens. Maria Cantwell and John McCain.

In spite of what many have said, Low Power FM (LPFM) contributes to the technical degradation of the FM service.  By adding more and more signals covering every possible spot in the FM spectrum, the noise floor is raised causing many FM receivers to “picket fence” which is annoying to most listeners.

Radio has suffered enough degradation over the last few decades.  AM radio is now so fraught with interference, especially at night, most people do not even consider listening to it.  Packing the FM dial with thousands of low power operators will create the same problems and cause most people to abandon radio altogether.

I am a strong proponent of 1st amendment rights.  I believe the sponsors of this bill are well intentioned, however misinformed. I believe that the deregulation of commercial radio allowing one company to own 1,200 radio licenses has created most of the problems we see today.

Clear Channel, in particular, has removed almost all localism from radio, creating bland canned music channels.  Their modus operandi was to buy a group of radio stations in a market, combine the stations under one roof, get rid of most of the staff, and drop the advertising rates so other local stations could not compete.  Non-Clear Channel stations were then forced to make cuts in there advertising rates and or expenses to stay in business.

The answer is not to create a bigger mess.  Instead:

1.  Push the FCC to tighten ownership rules.  In some ways the horse is already out of the barn, but it would prevent another Clear Channel from forming in the future.
2.  If major radio groups go bankrupt and are broken up, allow it to happen, do not intervene.  This will allow real radio broadcasters to pick up the pieces and put something together.  Perhaps investigate supporting small radio owners by waiving FCC fees and limited tax breaks for a period of time.
3.  Push the FCC to continue with the localism hearings they were conducting.
4.  Push the FCC to update the EAS and make a workable Emergency Alert System in the US.

Radio is too important a resource to have it ruined.  Of all the media outlets, radio is the most robust.  During an emergency often times the utility grid is down.  Many radio stations have backup power generators and can provide vital information when the internet, phone system, cable TV network, cellphone system, e-mail, etc are down.

Radio can provide local government important mass access to their constituents during elections and at other important times.  Radio is free, there are no subscription fees, no service providers, etc.  Almost everyone owns a radio, most people own several.

Small savvy radio owners can make a go of it, provided the deck is not stacked against them.

Please DO NOT support the Local Community Radio Act. Thank you.

If you want to get involved, you can go the the Free Press website, there you will find a link to a “Take Action” page (not sure that link will work).  Again, I am not opposed to Free Press, or even Free Radio.  Packing the FM spectrum with LPFM, translators and the like will only create reception problems.  This is just become another reason for people not to listen to radio.

The often misquoted Hunter S. Thompson

I have often heard or read this Hunter S. Thompson piece misquoted as “The Radio business is uglier than most things…”  After a bit of research, I found this directly from his book called Generation of Swine: Tales of Shame and Degradation in the ’80s (New York: Summit Books, 1988):

The TV business is uglier than most things. It is normally perceived as some kind of cruel and shallow money trench through the heart of the journalism industry, a long plastic hallway where thieves and pimps run free and good men die like dogs, for no good reason.

Phew, thank God I don’t work in TV, that must be really bad.

In the public interest

Once upon a time, usually during a license renewal period, a radio station listener might hear the following on the air:

On May 15, 2001, Radio Station KZZZ (FM) was granted a license by the Federal Communication Commission to serve the public interest as a public trustee until December 1, 2005. Our license will expire December 1, 2005. We must file for license renewal with the FCC by August 1, 2005. When filed, a copy of this application will be available for public inspection during our regular business hours. It contains information concerning this station’s performance during the last four years. Individuals who wish to advise the FCC of facts relating to our renewal application and to whether this station has operated in the public interest should file comments and petitions with the FCC by November 1, 2005. Further information concerning the FCC’s broadcast license renewal process is a available at the KZZZ offices, located at 555 Main Street in Smallville, or may be obtained from the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D.C. 20554.

So what does “Granted to serve the public interest mean?”  Perhaps having a news department, or sponsoring a debate in the local mayor’s race, perhaps a Sunday morning church service.  Maybe some High School football or even broadcasting emergency information such as tornado warnings or a flood warning.

How about broadcasting a flood warning to your listeners that are taking part in a station promotion?  How about if said station promotion happens to be taking place in a flood plain, and warnings issued several hours before the promotion is scheduled?  No?  You can’t make this stuff up, no one would believe you:

A Clear Channel station in Grand Rapids, MI threw its annual B93 Concert Bash on June 20 in nearby Ionia by the Grand Rapids River, apparently oblivious to flash flood warnings issued by the National Weather Service.

No, nothing bad can come of this right? right?  Of course the inevitable happend.  The river overflowed it’s banks, causing concert goers to flee for their lives and flooding the parking area submerging their cars.  Naturally, Clear Channel will pay those who had their cars towed out of the mud right.  Nope, you listeners are on your own, tough shit.

Then there is the now infamous Minot train derailing. For those not familar, a train carring anhydrous ammonia derailed and spilled it’s contents.  When local officials attempted to activate EAS, they couldn’t.  They then attempted to call the LP-1 station on the phone to get the information out, nobody was home.  Clear Channel placed the blame squarely on the local law enforecement agencies stating that they had not installed their EAS equipement properly and had changed frequencies on their radio link without notifying the radio station.  Perhaps, but it seems there is more than enough blame to share.  Were station employees proactive with the local government officials?  I can’t say, but they should have been.  EAS is a team effort.

Not to pile onto Clear Channel too much, Cumulus seems to encourage their listeners to head out doors, enjoy the good weather.  During a tornado warning.  Nice.

By this, It would appear that the public is interested in fleeing for their lives, having their cars flooded, all the while wondering what is going on.

No matter how hard people try, nothing can replace radio’s role in alerting the public.  Mass e-mail systems, Blackberries, and other internet based systems will fail when the power goes out and kills the supporting ethernet infrastructure.  Cellphones, PCS devices, I-phones become unreliable during emergencies because the TELCO system that supports them gets clogged with traffic.  Many cellphone towers do not have backup generators.  During the events of 9/11/2001, I experienced first hand the difficulties trying to use the wired telephone network due to congestion.  Since the HDTV rollout, cable companies have become the backbone for the distribution of TV signals.  Coaxial based cable systems rely on booster amplifiers every mile or two to keep the signal strengths usable.  Those amplifiers need power from the utility grid.  Not to mention, most TVs cannot run on batteries and lack portability.

Almost everyone owns a battery powered portable radio.  When the shit hits the fan, they will turn it on.  What will they hear?

So where is the official outrage?  Why has not the big radio CEO’s,  public trustees each, been dragged before congress to explain themselves?

American Airlines Flight 723

File under: Why we check the tower lights every day (or have an automated tower light reporting system):

56 years ago, on September 16, 1953 American Airlines flight 723 flew between the center and northeast towers of the WPTR antenna system while attempting to land at Albany County Airport.  The plane crashed about 3/10 mile away near NY route 5 (Central Avenue) killing all 28 persons on board.  To date, this is the worst aviation accident in the Albany, NY area.

Several years ago while cleaning out different AM transmitter site, I found a bunch of files about this accident in the trash bin.  It seems that some engineer had moved a file cabinet during the great consolidation of the 1990’s to the wrong transmitter site.  In any case, I rescued the file and for your reading pleasure, have scanned the following documents:

Original telegram to FCC in Washington DC regarding tower/aircraft colision

Original telegram to FCC in Washington DC regarding tower/aircraft colision

Retel WPTR north and center towers struck three hundred foot level 0930 morning 16 September by American Airlines Convair.  Damage inspected afternoon 16 September by representative Zane Construction and afternoon 17 September by engineer Ideco tower used in array.  Both report slight damage to center tower requiring straightening above 300 foot level.  North tower has two legs bent result of wing passing through tower 18 inches above top guys at bolt intersection.  Tower above bent and twisted but all right unless subject to high east wind.  Impact sheered north beacon clevises and shattered glass.  Replacement ordered and beacon restoration expected early next week.  Measurements of directional pattern afternoon 16 September show pattern unchanged and mulls, base currents and loop currents within tolerances except center loop current which reads ten percent low.  Indications are center pickup loop has been jarred and pattern unaffected.  FCC representative Turnbull who arrived noon Wednesday concurred.  No time lost.   Operating at full power

George Wetmore, Assistant Genl Mgr, Radio Station WPTR

This is the statement of the transmitter engineer on duty at the time of the crash.

Statement from the Engineer on duty at the transmitter site

Statement from the Engineer on duty at the transmitter site

I, Robert S. Henry engineer for Patroon Broadcasting Co. would like to make this statement concerning the collision of an American Airlines Plane with our transmitting towers.

On Wednesday morning September 16, 1953 I was on duty alone at the WPTR transmitter when at approximately 9:30 A.M. a low flying plane was heard overhead. The carrier trip circuit which protects the transmitting apparatus from sudden overloads at the antenna almost instantly actuated and a low sound of explosion followed about 3 seconds later. I ran to the back door of the transmitter in time to see what proved later to be aluminum sheets fluttering down through the fog. I estimate the ceiling at the time to have been approximately 75 feet and not sharply defined. The centre (sic) tower of our three tower array swayed violently for approximately for approximately (sic) 1 minute. At the time I knew a plane had hit the tower but it was above the ceiling and invisable to me. I called W. R. David and George Wetmore and the incident was reported to the Albany airport.

Back in these days, the studios were located at the Hendrick Hudson Hotel in Troy, the transmitter site was manned by a licensed transmitter engineer when ever the station was on the air.

What is amazing is that the IDECO towers remained standing after being struck by Convair 240, a pretty good sized aircraft.

Convair CV-240

Convair CV-240

Official report by the International Civil Aviation Organization:

American Airlines’ Flight 723 was a scheduled flight between Boston, and Chicago, with intermediate stops among which were Hartford (BDL), and Albany (ALB). The CV-240 arrived at Bradley Field at 06:57. Weather at the next stop, Albany, at this time was below the company’s landing minimums, but was forecast to improve to within limits by the time the flight arrived there. Departure from Bradley Field was made at 07:14. Because of poor visibility at Albany, several aircraft were in a holding pattern. The special Albany weather report issued at 07:50 indicated thin obscurement, ceiling estimated 4,000, overcast, fog, visibility 3/4 miles. Two aircraft left the holding pattern, attempted to land, but both executed a missed approach procedure. A third airplane landed at 08:16 following an instrument approach to runway 19. Immediately following this landing, Flight 723 was cleared to make an instrument approach to runway 19. Three minutes later the flight advised the tower that its approach was being abandoned because the aircraft’s flaps could not be lowered.
At 08:30 Albany Tower reported:”All aircraft holding Albany. It now appears to be pretty good for a contact approach from the west. It looks much better than to the north.” Flight 723 was then cleared for a contact approach to runway 10. On finals for runway 10, the Convair descended too low. The right wing of the aircraft struck the center tower of three radio towers at a point 308 feet above the ground. The left wing then struck the east tower. Seven feet of the outer panel of the right wing including the right aileron and control mechanism from the center hinge outboard together with 15 feet of the left outer wing panel and aileron separated from the aircraft at this time. Following the collision with the towers, ground impact occurred a distance of 1,590 feet beyond the tower last struck. First ground contact was made simultaneously by the nose and the left wing with the aircraft partially inverted.
The weather reported at the time of the accident was thin scattered clouds at, 500 feet, ceiling estimated 4500 feet, broken clouds, visibility 1-1/2 miles, fog.

PROBABLE CAUSE: “During the execution of a contact approach, and while manoeuvring for alignment with the runway to be used, descent was made to an altitude below obstructions partially obscured by fog in a local area of restricted visibility.”

The above reports notes that the aircraft traveled 1590 feet and struck the ground partially inverted.  I do not know what the flaps up landing speed of a Convair CV-240 is but the cruising speed is 280 MPH.  It would be safe to say the aircraft was traveling in the 120 to 130 MPH range or about 220 feet per second.  At that speed, it was likely airborne for about 7 seconds after it hit the tower.  Enough time to look out the window, realize what was happening and say “Oh, Shit!”

IDECO towers WDCD antenna system

IDECO towers WDCD antenna system, northeast tower is farthest

IDECO stood for the Internation Derrick Company, they build cranes, derricks and bridges as well as radio towers. Apparently they made pretty good stuff because those same towers are still standing today.

Not that checking the tower lights would have averted disaster in this case, it appears to be pilot error compounded by bad weather that caused this incident.  But there have been more recent aircraft/radio tower accidents, some of which have involved possible faulty tower lights.  I wouldn’t want that on my conscience.

Theft prevention system

chair chained to work bench

chair chained to work bench

Ever since the new morning show guy started about six months ago, my work bench chair has been frequently migrating into the air studio.  I don’t mind sharing, as long as things are put back where they came.  I requested that the ever so cool, to hip to care DJ return it after use, which was ignored.

On my last trip to the hardware store, I made a purchase:

Behold, a length of 5/16 chain and two master combination locks.  Now, every time I go to sit in my work bench chair, it is there.

If only all problems were this easy.

Module swap guys

Nautel V-10 Power Supply

Nautel V-10 Power Supply

Gone is the day when the radio station engineer had to trouble shoot down to the component level, often crawling in and out of transmitters to get at the suspected part.  I for one, spent many a long night at a transmitter site chasing some weird combination of symptoms down to the $0.34 1N914 diode in the directional coupler (see previous post about the MW-50).

It is a skill set now mostly confined to manufactures’ repair departments, for which they charge a pretty penny.  Nowadays, the technician simply slides out one module or circuit card and slides in another.  If that doesn’t fix it, panic ensues.  I know of several class C FM radio stations that are now relying on the computer guy to fix transmitters, because, you know, it’s cheaper.

To be fair, most engineers are contractors and many of those simply do not have the time to trouble shoot to the component level.  So, they ship everything back to the factory then pass the cost on to their client.

Then of course, most circuit boards these days are surface mount systems, which are hard to work on if you don’t have the right tools.  Normally an expensive temperature controlled soldering station is required, as well as a magnifying glass.

All of these things combine make circuit board work something to be outsourced.  Unfortunately, a night spent trouble shooting was often a great learning experience.  I have done some of my best work when my back was up against a wall and I was out of options.

I make the attempt to fix things locally, unless the transmitter or other item is under warranty or not having a spare/attempting to trouble shoot will take the station off the air.  I think it is important to keep abreast of technology and keep my trouble shooting skills up to par.  Besides, I find it gratifying that at least I can still fix things.

My friend, the MW-50B

I began fooling around with radios when I was 10 years old or so. First, I built one of those shortwave radio kits from Radio Shack, which was back when they still sold radios.

Then I bought a small tube type AM transmitter at a garage sale.  The woman there said her son built it several years ago from a kit and it had the instruction manual.  I don’t even know who made the kit.  After some experimentation and changing out some tubes, I got the thing to transmit on about 1600 kHz, although it was a little hard to nail down as it drifted quite a bit until everything heated up.  I don’t know what power that thing put out, but it was certainly less than a watt.

All of this lead to a brief stint in the military as a radioman.  That was an interesting field, albeit different from what I thought it would be when I signed up.  It was during this time that I did some part time work at an AM/FM/TV station assisting the Chief Engineer.  Once it was established that I actually knew something, my responsibilities grew until I was assigned the AM/FM part of the deal.

After a year of that, I moved to a different city for family reasons and took the Chief Engineer job at a local AM/FM station.  The AM station was a 50,000 watt directional in the high end of the band which had a Harris MW-50B transmitter.  My previous station had a Bauer 10,000 D AM transmitter.  What could be so different? Plenty I learned, on my second day.

Harris MW50B transmitter with 50 KW air cooled power supply

Harris MW50B transmitter with 50 KW air cooled power supply

We were subjected to a wicked lightning storm, which, Murphy being present, took out the main transmitter.  The backup was a GE BTA25 which was running at half power because of the age of the 5891  final tubes.

The symptoms of the MW-50 where as follows:  It would run along fine then there would be a big blue flash and a cannon shot boom, followed by the step start relays cycling and it would come back on the air.  There were no overload lights nor any other symptoms leading up to the overload or subsequent to it.

I began by killing the power and shorting out all the high voltage parts with a shorting stick.  I noticed that things inside this transmitter where a little unusual, so I got the manual out and started reading.  The most unusual aspect of this transmitter is the 25 KV isolated box that the PA stage occupies.  25,000 volts DC is a great big potential and what I found over the years is that this transmitter needs to be kept very clean.  Of course, this unit had not been, and that was a part of the problem.

The other unique aspect of this transmitter is the damper diode, which is required by PDM transmitters to conduct voltage during the negative modulation peaks.  If the damper diode breaks down for any reason, the PA supply voltage tries to go to infinity, which is a good deal larger than 25KV and all sorts of problems begin.

To make a long story somewhat shorter, this is the problem I had.  The solid state damper diode had one bad section, which was causing all sorts of corona problems during heavy negative modulation peaks.  It took a call the Harris factory to determine this.  The entire diode assembly needed to be replaced because every section is matched.  That cost a couple of thousand dollars as I recall.

While I was working on the MW-50B transmitter, I was not impressed.  It seemed a little cheap and flimsy.  Later, when I voiced my concerns with the station management, the Harris transmitter salesman stopped by and said I needed to get with the program if I wanted to work in that market.  This was a Harris town you see, if you start bad mouthing our products, you’ll be the one to suffer.  Well, he retired, I kept looking around for other AM transmitters.  Three years later I went to work for the competitor across town.  Today that station has a Nautel ND-50.

The MW50 went off the air once every 6 months for the entire time I worked at this station.  It was always something different, power supply rectifier, bad PDM board, bad directional coupler, arcing insulator on the isolated box, etc.  I began to feel it didn’t like me, and I know I didn’t like it.  In fact, you could say I have never really liked Harris transmitter products ever since.

Update: Okay, I left a few things out of the narrative:

The 50 KW air cooled power supply was the light weight version.  Most MW-50 transmitters had 100 KW oil cooled supplies.  The problem with the 50 KW power supply was it was designed with a zero safety factor.  All of the rectifier were running at or near maximum current and voltage.  It only took one of 144 diodes to go bad, either short or open, and the whole transmitter would crash.  Again, no overload lights or other indications of problems.  We later installed air flushing fans in the power supply cabinet to keep things cool and that helped out quite a bit.

The other thing was a DC feedback sample to the PDM card.  It seems that if the filaments were turned off before the bleeder resistors took the 25 KV supply to zero, the remaining voltage would be routed to the PDM card via the DC feedback sample, blowing the foil off of the circuit card.  We fixed this by installing a gas discharge tube with a series resistor at the connection point for the DC feedback sample.

Then there are the infamous 1N914 diodes in the directional coupler that Dave points out below.

I am sure I am forgetting something else, but you get the idea.

Axiom


A pessimist sees the glass as half empty. An optimist sees the glass as half full. The engineer sees the glass as twice the size it needs to be.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
~1st amendment to the United States Constitution

Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.
~Benjamin Franklin

The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. To be your own man is hard business. If you try it, you will be lonely often, and sometimes frightened. But no price is too high to pay for the privilege of owning yourself.
~Rudyard Kipling

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers
~Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, Article 19

...radio was discovered, and not invented, and that these frequencies and principles were always in existence long before man was aware of them. Therefore, no one owns them. They are there as free as sunlight, which is a higher frequency form of the same energy.
~Alan Weiner

Free counters!